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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K 
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
                            or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______
Commission file number 1-11437
 
LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland 52-1893632
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
6801 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda,Maryland 20817
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(301) 897-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1 par valueLMTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer Non–accelerated filer Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No
The aggregate market value of voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the last sales price of such stock, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, which was June 25, 2021, was approximately $105.3 billion.
There were 272,326,925 shares of our common stock, $1 par value per share, outstanding as of January 19, 2022.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Lockheed Martin Corporation’s 2022 Definitive Proxy Statement are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10‑K. The 2022 Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.


Table of Contents

Lockheed Martin Corporation
Form 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2021
Table of Contents
 
PART I Page 
ITEM 1.
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
ITEM 4(a).
PART II
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART III
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
PART IV
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.
 



Table of Contents
PART I
ITEM  1.    Business
General
We are a global security and aerospace company principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. We also provide a broad range of management, engineering, technical, scientific, logistics, system integration and cybersecurity services. We serve both U.S. and international customers with products and services that have defense, civil and commercial applications, with our principal customers being agencies of the U.S. Government. In 2021, 71% of our $67.0 billion in net sales were from the U.S. Government, either as a prime contractor or as a subcontractor (including 62% from the Department of Defense (DoD)), 28% were from international customers (including foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government) and 1% were from U.S. commercial and other customers. Our main areas of focus are in defense, space, intelligence, homeland security and information technology, including cybersecurity.
We operate in an environment characterized by both complexity in global security and continuing economic pressures in the U.S. and globally. A significant component of our strategy in this environment is to focus on program execution, improving the quality and predictability of the delivery of our products and services, and placing security capability quickly into the hands of our U.S. and international customers at affordable prices. Recognizing that our customers are resource constrained, we place considerable focus on affordability initiatives while endeavoring to develop and extend our portfolio domestically in a disciplined manner, with a focus on adjacent markets close to our core capabilities as well as growing our international sales. We invest substantially in our people to ensure we have the technical skills necessary to succeed, and we expect to continue to invest internally on innovative technologies that address rapidly evolving mission requirements for our customers. We will continue to invest in acquisitions, as appropriate, while deepening our connection to commercial industry through cooperative partnerships, joint ventures, and equity investments.
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, Missiles and Fire Control (MFC), Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of the products and services offered.
Pending Acquisition of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc.
On December 20, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc. (Aerojet Rocketdyne) for $51.00 per share, which is net of a $5.00 per share special cash dividend Aerojet Rocketdyne paid to its stockholders on March 24, 2021. At the time of announcement, this represented a post-dividend equity value of approximately $4.6 billion, on a fully diluted as-converted basis, and a transaction value of approximately $4.4 billion after the assumption of Aerojet Rocketdyne’s then-projected net cash. The transaction was approved by Aerojet Rocketdyne’s stockholders on March 9, 2021. As part of the regulatory review process of the transaction, on September 24, 2021, we and Aerojet Rocketdyne each certified substantial compliance with the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) requests for additional information, known as a “second request.” On January 11, 2022, the parties provided an updated notice of their intended closing date under their timing agreement with the FTC, whereby the parties agreed that they would not close the transaction before January 27, 2022, to enable the parties to discuss the scope and nature of the merchant supply and firewall commitments previously offered to the FTC by Lockheed Martin. We have been advised by the FTC that its concerns regarding the transaction cannot be addressed adequately by the terms of a consent order. We believe it is highly likely that the FTC will vote to sue to block the transaction and expect they will make a decision before January 27, 2022. If the FTC sues to block the transaction, we could elect to defend the lawsuit within 30 days or terminate the merger agreement. If the FTC does not file a lawsuit to block the transaction before January 27, 2022, the parties could proceed to close the transaction, but there is no assurance that the FTC would not file a lawsuit challenging the transaction after the closing since the parties have not reached agreement on the terms of a consent order. Under the terms of the merger agreement, either party may terminate the transaction if it has not closed on or before March 21, 2022. See Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of the risks related to the proposed transaction.
Business Segments
Aeronautics
In 2021, our Aeronautics business segment generated net sales of $26.7 billion, which represented 40% of our total consolidated net sales. Aeronautics’ customers include the military services, principally the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy, and various other government agencies of the U.S. and other countries, as well as commercial and other customers. In 2021, U.S. Government customers accounted for 65% and international customers accounted for 35% of Aeronautics’ net sales. Net sales from Aeronautics’ combat aircraft products and services represented 32% of our total consolidated net sales in 2021 and 2019, and 33% in 2020.
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Aeronautics is engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration, sustainment, support and upgrade of advanced military aircraft, including combat and air mobility aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and related technologies. Aeronautics also has contracts with the U.S. Government for classified programs. Aeronautics’ major programs include:
F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter - international multi-role, multi-variant, fifth generation stealth fighter;
C-130 Hercules - international tactical airlifter;
F-16 Fighting Falcon - low-cost, combat-proven, international multi-role fighter; and
F-22 Raptor - air dominance and multi-role fifth generation stealth fighter.
The F-35 program is our largest program, generating 27% of our total consolidated net sales, as well as 68% of Aeronautics’ net sales in 2021. The F-35 program consists of multiple development, production and sustainment contracts. Development is focused on modernization of F-35’s capability and addressing emerging threats. Sustainment provides logistics and training support for the aircraft delivered to F-35 customers.
Production of the aircraft is expected to continue for many years given the U.S. Government’s current inventory objective of 2,456 aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Navy; commitments from our seven international partner countries and six international customers; and expressions of interest from other countries. In 2021, we delivered 142 aircraft, including 68 to international customers, resulting in total deliveries of 753 production aircraft since program inception. This was an increase from the 120 aircraft delivered in 2020 when the production rate was tapered as a result of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related delays. While the production rate in 2021 improved from its 2020 levels, it continued to be impacted by COVID-19. We anticipate delivering 148-153 aircraft in 2022. In 2023 and beyond, we anticipate delivering 156 aircraft for the foreseeable future. We have 230 aircraft in backlog as of December 31, 2021 extending into 2023, including orders from our international partner countries. For additional information on the F-35 program, see “Status of the F‑35 Program” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. See also Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of risks related to the F-35 program.
Aeronautics produces and provides support and sustainment services for the C-130J Super Hercules, as well as upgrades and support services for the legacy C-130 Hercules worldwide fleet. We delivered 22 C-130J aircraft in 2021. We have 79 aircraft in our backlog as of December 31, 2021, extending into 2025.
Aeronautics produces F-16 aircraft for international customers and continues to provide service-life extension, modernization and other upgrade programs for our customers’ F‑16 aircraft, with existing contracts continuing for several years. As of December 31, 2021, we have 128 F-16 aircraft in backlog, extending into 2027. We continue to seek international opportunities to deliver additional aircraft.
Aeronautics continues to provide modernization and sustainment activities for the U.S. Air Force’s F-22 aircraft fleet. The modernization program comprises upgrading existing systems requirements, developing new systems requirements, adding capabilities and enhancing the performance of the weapon systems. The sustainment program consists of sustaining the weapon systems of the F-22 fleet, providing training systems, customer support, integrated support planning, supply chain management, aircraft modifications and heavy maintenance, systems engineering and support products.
In addition to the aircraft programs discussed above, Aeronautics is involved in advanced development programs incorporating innovative design and rapid prototype applications. Our Advanced Development Programs (ADP) organization, also known as Skunk Works®, is focused on future systems, including unmanned and manned aerial systems and next generation capabilities for hypersonics, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, situational awareness and air mobility. We continue to explore technology advancement and insertion into our existing aircraft. We also are involved in numerous network-enabled activities that allow separate systems to work together to increase effectiveness and we continue to invest in new technologies to maintain and enhance competitiveness in military aircraft design, development and production.
Missiles and Fire Control
In 2021, our MFC business segment generated net sales of $11.7 billion, which represented 17% of our total consolidated net sales. MFC’s customers include the military services, principally the U.S. Army, and various government agencies of the U.S. and other countries, as well as commercial and other customers. In 2021, U.S. Government customers accounted for 71% and international customers accounted for 29% of MFC’s net sales.
MFC provides air and missile defense systems; tactical missiles and air-to-ground precision strike weapon systems; logistics; fire control systems; mission operations support, readiness, engineering support and integration services; manned and
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unmanned ground vehicles; and energy management solutions. MFC also has contracts with the U.S. Government for various classified programs. MFC’s major programs include:
The Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) air and missile defense programs. PAC-3 is an advanced defensive missile for the U.S. Army and international customers designed to intercept and eliminate incoming airborne threats using kinetic energy. THAAD is a transportable defensive missile system for the U.S. Government and international customers designed to engage targets both within and outside of the Earth’s atmosphere.
The Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Hellfire, and Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) tactical missile programs. MLRS is a highly mobile, automatic system that fires surface-to-surface rockets and missiles from the M270 and High Mobility Artillery Rocket System platforms produced for the U.S. Army and international customers. Hellfire is an air-to-ground missile used on rotary and fixed-wing aircraft, which is produced for the U.S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps and international customers. JASSM is an air-to-ground missile launched from fixed-wing aircraft, which is produced for the U.S. Air Force and international customers.
The Apache, Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (SNIPER®) and Infrared Search and Track (IRST21®) fire control systems programs. The Apache fire control system provides weapons targeting capability for the Apache helicopter for the U.S. Army and international customers. SNIPER is a targeting system for several fixed-wing aircraft and is produced for the U.S. Air Force and international customers. IRST21 provides long-range infrared detection and tracking of airborne threats and is used on several fixed-wing aircraft. IRST21 is produced for the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Navy, the National Guard and international customers.
The Special Operations Forces Global Logistics Support Services (SOF GLSS) program, which provides logistics support services to the special operations forces of the U.S. military.
Hypersonics programs, which include several programs with the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army to design, develop and build hypersonic strike weapons.

Rotary and Mission Systems
In 2021, our RMS business segment generated net sales of $16.8 billion, which represented 25% of our total consolidated net sales. RMS’ customers include the military services, principally the U.S. Navy and Army, and various government agencies of the U.S. and other countries, as well as commercial and other customers. In 2021, U.S. Government customers accounted for 70%, international customers accounted for 28% and U.S. commercial and other customers accounted for 2% of RMS’ net sales. Net sales from RMS’ Sikorsky helicopter programs represented 10% of our consolidated net sales in 2021, and 9% in 2020 and 2019. RMS also has contracts with the U.S. Government for classified programs.
RMS designs, manufactures, services and supports various military and commercial helicopters, surface ships, sea and land-based missile defense systems, radar systems, sea and air-based mission and combat systems, command and control mission solutions, cyber solutions, and simulation and training solutions. RMS’ major programs include:
Sikorsky programs such as those related to the Black Hawk® and Seahawk® helicopters which are in service with U.S. and foreign governments, the CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopter serving the U.S. Marine Corps, the Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) utilized by the U.S. Air Force, and the VH-92A helicopter for the U.S. Marine One transport mission.
Integrated warfare systems and sensors (IWSS) programs such as Aegis Combat System (Aegis) programs that serve as an air and missile defense system for the U.S. Navy and international customers and is also a sea and land-based element of the U.S. missile defense system, and the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) and Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC) programs to provide surface combatant ships for the U.S. Navy and international customers that are designed to operate in shallow waters and the open ocean.
Command, control, communications, computers, cyber, combat systems, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C6ISR) programs such as the Command, Control, Battle Management and Communications (C2BMC) program to provide an air operations center for the Ballistic Missile Defense System for the U.S. Government, and undersea combat systems programs largely serving the U.S. Navy.
Training and logistics solutions (TLS) programs such as those providing sustainment services and programs that provide simulators and associated training to U.S. military and foreign government customers.

Space
In 2021, our Space business segment generated net sales of $11.8 billion, which represented 18% of our total consolidated net sales. Space’s customers include the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Space Force, U.S. Navy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and various government agencies of the U.S. and other countries along with commercial customers. In 2021, U.S. Government customers accounted for 92% and international customers
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accounted for 8% of Space’s net sales. Net sales from Space’s satellite products and services represented 10% of our total consolidated net sales in 2021 and 11% in 2020 and 2019.
As previously announced, on June 30, 2021 the UK Ministry of Defence terminated the contract to operate the UK’s nuclear deterrent program and assumed control of the entity that manages the program (referred to as the renationalization of the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE program)). Accordingly, the AWE program, including the entity that manages the program, was no longer included in our financial results as of that date.
Space is engaged in the research and development, design, engineering and production of satellites, space transportation systems, and strategic, advanced strike, and defensive systems. Space provides network-enabled situational awareness and integrates complex space and ground global systems to help our customers gather, analyze and securely distribute critical intelligence data. Space is also responsible for various classified systems and services in support of vital national security systems. Space’s major programs include:
The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (Next Gen OPIR) system programs, which provide the U.S. Air Force with enhanced worldwide missile warning capabilities.
The Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM), a program with the U.S. Navy for the only submarine-launched intercontinental ballistic missile currently in production in the U.S.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), a spacecraft for NASA utilizing new technology for human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit.
Global Positioning System (GPS) III, a program to modernize the GPS satellite system for the U.S. Air Force.
Hypersonics programs, which include several programs with the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy to design, develop and build hypersonic strike weapons.
Next Generation Interceptor (NGI), a program with the MDA utilizing next generation propulsion and sensors to provide homeland missile defense.

Intellectual Property
We routinely apply for and own a substantial number of U.S. and foreign patents and trademarks related to the products and services we provide. In addition to owning a large portfolio of patents and trademarks, we develop and own other intellectual property, including copyrights, trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how, which contribute significantly to our business. We also license intellectual property to and from third parties. The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) provide that the U.S. Government obtains certain rights in intellectual property, including patents, developed by us and our subcontractors and suppliers in performance of government contracts or with government funding. The U.S. Government may use or authorize others, including competitors, to use such intellectual property. See the discussion of matters related to our intellectual property within Item 1A - Risk Factors. Non-U.S. governments may also have certain rights in patents and other intellectual property developed in performance of our contracts for them. Although our intellectual property rights in the aggregate are important to the operation of our business, we do not believe that any existing patent, license or other intellectual property right is of such importance that its loss or termination would have a material adverse effect on our business taken as a whole.
Research and Development
We conduct research and development (R&D) activities using our own funds (referred to as company-funded R&D or independent research and development (IR&D)) and under contractual arrangements with our customers (referred to as customer-funded R&D) to enhance existing products and services and to develop future technologies. R&D costs include basic research, applied research, concept formulation studies, design, development, and related test activities. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” (under the caption “Research and development and similar costs”) included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Raw Materials, Suppliers and Seasonality
Some of our products require relatively scarce raw materials. Historically, we have been successful in obtaining the raw materials and other supplies needed in our manufacturing processes. We seek to manage raw materials supply risk through long-term contracts and by maintaining an acceptable level of the key materials in inventories.
Aluminum and titanium are important raw materials used in certain of our Aeronautics and Space programs. Long-term agreements have helped enable a continued supply of aluminum and titanium. Carbon fiber is an important ingredient in composite materials used in our Aeronautics programs, such as the F-35 aircraft. We have been advised by some suppliers that pricing and the timing of availability of materials in some commodities markets can fluctuate widely. These fluctuations may
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negatively affect the price and availability of certain materials. While we do not anticipate material problems regarding the supply of our raw materials and believe that we have taken appropriate measures to mitigate these variations, if key materials become unavailable or if pricing fluctuates widely in the future, it could result in delay of one or more of our programs, increased costs or reduced operating profits or cash flows.
We rely on other companies to provide materials, major components and products, including advanced microelectronics such as semiconductors, and to perform a portion of the services that are provided to our customers under the terms of most of our contracts. A failure by one or more of these suppliers or subcontractors to provide the agreed-upon supplies or perform the agreed-upon services on a timely basis, according to specifications, or at all, may affect our ability to perform our obligations. While we believe we have taken appropriate measures to mitigate these risks, supplier disruptions, including as a result of COVID-19, could result in delays, increased costs, or reduced operating profits or cash flows. For more information on the risks related to our suppliers and raw materials, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
No material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal. Various factors can affect the distribution of our sales between accounting periods, including the timing of government awards, the availability of government funding, product deliveries and customer acceptance.
Human Capital Resources
Due to the specialized nature of our business, our performance depends on identifying, attracting, developing, motivating and retaining a highly skilled workforce in multiple areas, including engineering, science, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, business development and strategy and management. Our human capital management strategy, which we refer to as our people strategy, is tightly aligned with our business needs and technology strategy. During 2021, our human capital efforts were focused on continuing to accelerate the transformation of our technology for workforce management through investments in upgraded systems and processes, and continuing to increase our agility to meet the quickly changing needs of the business, all while maintaining a respectful, challenging, supportive and inclusive working environment. We use a variety of human capital measures in managing our business, including: workforce demographics; hiring metrics; talent management metrics, including retention rates of top talent; and diversity metrics with respect to representation, attrition, hiring, promotions and leadership.
Workforce Demographics
As of December 31, 2021, we had a highly skilled workforce made up of approximately 114,000 employees, including approximately 59,000 engineers, scientists and information technology professionals. As of December 31, 2021, approximately 93% of our workforce was located in the U.S. and approximately 20% of our employees were covered by collective bargaining agreements with various unions. A number of our existing collective bargaining agreements expire in any given year. Historically, we have been successful in negotiating renewals to expiring agreements without any material disruption of operating activities, and management considers employee and union relations to be good.
Diversity and Inclusion
Diversity and inclusion is a business imperative for us, as we believe that it is key to our future success. We have focused our diversity and inclusion initiatives on employee recruitment, including investments in minority-serving institutions and outreach, employee training and development, such as efforts focused on expanding the diverse talent pipeline, and employee engagement, including through participation in our employee Business Resource Groups. Our Business Resource Groups are voluntary, employee-led groups that are open to all employees while focusing on workplace issues specific to racial/ethnic, gender, sexual orientation/gender identity, disability or veteran status. The Business Resource Groups foster a diverse and inclusive workplace aligned with our organizational mission, values, goals and business practices and drive awareness and change within our organization. Through these and other focused efforts, we have improved the diversity of our overall U.S. workforce and within leadership positions, specifically in the representation of women, people of color and people with disabilities. Additionally, our representation of veterans remains outstanding, at almost four times the current annual national percentage of veterans in the civilian workforce.
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Employee Profile (as of December 31, 2021):
Women(a)
People of Color(a)
Veterans(a)
People with Disabilities(a)
Overall23%29%21%10%
Executives(b)
23%15%20%11%
(a)Based on employees who self-identify. Includes only U.S. employees and expatriates except for women, which also includes local country nationals. Excludes casual workers, interns/co-ops and employees of certain subsidiaries and joint ventures.
(b)Executive is defined as director-level (one level below vice president) or higher.
Talent Acquisition, Retention and Development
We strive to hire, develop and retain the top talent in the industry. During 2021, we hired more than 10,000 employees, despite the continuing challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. An integral part of our people strategy is early career hiring through college and intern pipelines, particularly in technical fields. In addition to efforts focused on recruitment, we also monitor employee attrition across a broad array of categories and segments of the population, including with respect to diversity and top talent. Critical to attracting and retaining top talent is employee satisfaction, and we regularly conduct employee engagement surveys to gauge employee satisfaction and to understand the effectiveness of our people strategy. We attract and reward our employees by providing market competitive compensation and benefit practices, including incentives and recognition plans that extend to nonrepresented employees of all levels in our organization and encourage excellence through our pay-for-performance philosophy. We also have continued a teleworking policy that encourages flexible working arrangements for employees who can meet our customer commitments remotely, which we believe helps recruit and retain talent. In addition, we invest in the development of our employees through training, apprenticeship programs, leadership development plans and offering tuition assistance programs for continuing education or industry certifications. This employee development helps to make us more competitive and also assists with leadership succession planning throughout the corporation.
Employee Safety and Health
Our safety and health program seeks to optimize our operations through targeted safety, health and wellness opportunities designed to ensure safe work conditions, a healthy work environment, promote workforce resiliency and enhance business value. As part of this program, we track employee health and safety measures, including quarterly and yearly targets related to the number of injury and illness incidents that occur at work, those incidents that result in days lost, and the number of days lost due to workplace injuries and illness. During 2021, these metrics continued to be negatively impacted by the absence from work and delays in the return to work related to COVID-19. We continue to take steps to protect our employees from COVID-19 while sustaining production and related services, including by establishing minimum staffing and social distancing and mask wearing policies consistent with current governmental guidance, cleaning common areas more frequently, implementing a flexible teleworking policy for employees who can work from home, encouraging employee vaccinations while monitoring potential vaccine mandates, and instituting other measures designed to mitigate and prevent the spread of COVID-19.
For information on the risks related to our human capital resources, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Competition
Our broad portfolio of products and services competes both domestically and internationally against products and services of other large aerospace and defense companies, numerous smaller competitors and, increasingly, emerging competitors, including startups and non-traditional defense contractors. Changes within the industry we operate in, such as vertical integration by our peers, could negatively impact us without appropriate remedies to protect our interests. We often form teams with our competitors in efforts to provide our customers with the best mix of capabilities to address specific requirements. In some areas of our business, customer requirements are changing to encourage expanded competition. Principal factors of competition include the value of our products and services to the customer; technical and management capability; the ability to develop and implement complex, integrated system architectures; total cost of ownership; our demonstrated ability to execute and perform against contract requirements; and our ability to provide timely and cost effective solutions. Technological advances in such areas as additive manufacturing, data analytics, digital engineering, artificial intelligence, advanced materials, autonomy and robotics, and new business models such as commercial access to space are enabling new factors of competition for both traditional and non-traditional competitors.
The competition for international sales is generally subject to U.S. Government stipulations (e.g., export restrictions, market access, technology transfer, industrial cooperation and contracting practices). We may compete against U.S. and non-
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U.S. companies (or teams) for contract awards by international governments. International competitions also may be subject to different laws or contracting practices of international governments that may affect how we structure our bid for the procurement. In many international procurements, the purchasing government’s relationship with the U.S. and its industrial cooperation programs are important factors in determining the outcome of a competition. It is common for international customers to require contractors to comply with their industrial cooperation regulations, sometimes referred to as offset requirements, and we have entered into foreign offset agreements as part of securing some international business. For more information concerning offset agreements, see “Contractual Commitments” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 1A - Risk Factors.
Government Contracts and Regulations
Our business is heavily regulated. We contract with numerous U.S. Government agencies and entities, principally all branches of the U.S. military and NASA. We also contract with similar government authorities in other countries and they regulate our non-FMS international sales. Additionally, our commercial aircraft products are required to comply with U.S. and international regulations governing production and quality systems, airworthiness and installation approvals, repair procedures and continuing operational safety.
We must comply with, and are affected by, laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of U.S. Government and other governments’ contracts, including foreign governments. These laws and regulations, among other things:
require certification and disclosure of all cost or pricing data in connection with certain types of contract negotiations;
impose specific and unique cost accounting practices that may differ from U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP);
impose acquisition regulations, which may change or be replaced over time, that define which costs can be charged to the U.S. Government, how and when costs can be charged, and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain U.S. Government and foreign contracts;
require specific security controls to protect U.S. Government controlled unclassified information and restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the export of certain products, services and technical data; and compliance with cyber security regulations by our supply chain; and
require the review and approval of contractor business systems, defined in the regulations as: (i) Accounting System; (ii) Estimating System; (iii) Earned Value Management System, for managing cost and schedule performance on certain complex programs; (iv) Purchasing System; (v) Material Management and Accounting System, for planning, controlling and accounting for the acquisition, use, issuing and disposition of material; and (vi) Property Management System.
The U.S. Government and other governments may terminate any of our government contracts and subcontracts either at its convenience or for default based on our performance. If a contract is terminated for convenience, we generally are protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contract and profit on those costs. If a contract is terminated for default, we generally are entitled to payments for our work that has been accepted by the U.S. Government or other governments; however, the U.S. Government and other governments could make claims to reduce the contract value or recover its procurement costs and could assess other special penalties. For more information regarding the U.S. Government’s and other governments’ right to terminate our contracts and the risks of doing work internationally, see Item 1A - Risk Factors. For more information regarding government contracting laws and regulations, see Item 1A - Risk Factors as well as “Critical Accounting Policies - Contract Accounting / Sales Recognition” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Additionally, our programs for the U.S. Government often operate for periods of time under undefinitized contract actions (UCAs), which means that we begin performing our obligations before the terms, specifications or price are finally agreed to between the parties. Although in most cases we historically have reached mutual agreement to definitize our UCAs, the U.S. Government has the ability to unilaterally definitize contracts and has done so in the past. Absent a successful appeal of such action, the unilateral definitization of the contract obligates us to perform under terms and conditions imposed by the U.S. Government. The U.S. Government’s power to unilaterally definitize a contract can affect our ability to negotiate mutually agreeable contract terms and, if a contract is unilaterally imposed upon us, it may negatively affect our expected profit and cash flows on a program or impose burdensome terms.
A portion of our business is classified by the U.S. Government and cannot be specifically described. The operating results of these classified contracts are included in our consolidated financial statements. The business risks and capital requirements associated with classified contracts historically have not differed materially from those of our other U.S. Government contracts. Our internal controls addressing the financial reporting of classified contracts are consistent with our internal controls for our non-classified contracts.
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Our operations are subject to and affected by various federal, state, local and foreign environmental protection laws and regulations regarding the discharge of materials into the environment or otherwise regulating the protection of the environment. As a result of these environmental protection laws, we are involved in environmental remediation at some of our current and former facilities and at third-party-owned sites where we have been designated a potentially responsible party as a result of our prior activities and those of our predecessor companies. While the extent of our financial exposure cannot in all cases be reasonably estimated, the costs of environmental compliance have not had, and we do not expect that these costs will have, a material adverse effect on our earnings, financial position and cash flow, primarily because substantially all of our environmental costs are allowable in establishing the price of our products and services under our contracts with the U.S. Government. For information regarding these matters, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for remediation or cleanup to the extent that they are probable and estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and “Note 15 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. See also the discussion of environmental matters within Item 1A - Risk Factors.
There is an increasing global regulatory focus on greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and their potential impacts relating to climate change. Future laws, regulations or policies in response to concerns over GHG emissions such as carbon taxes, mandatory reporting and disclosure obligations and changes in procurement policies could significantly increase our operational and compliance burdens and costs. We monitor developments in climate-change related regulation for their potential effect on us and also have a comprehensive sustainability program that seeks to mitigate our impact on the environment, including targets to reduce our GHG emissions. For more information on the risk of climate-change related regulation, see Item 1A - Risk Factors.

Available Information
We are a Maryland corporation formed in 1995 by combining the businesses of Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta Corporation. Our principal executive offices are located at 6801 Rockledge Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20817. Our telephone number is (301) 897-6000 and our website address is www.lockheedmartin.com.
We make our website content available for information purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, nor is it incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K).
Throughout this Form 10-K, we incorporate by reference information from parts of other documents filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC allows us to disclose important information by referring to it in this manner.
Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements for our annual stockholders’ meetings and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website, www.lockheedmartin.com/investor, as soon as reasonably practical after we electronically file the material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, copies of our annual report will be made available, free of charge, upon written request. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC registrants, including Lockheed Martin Corporation.
Forward-Looking Statements
This Form 10-K contains statements that, to the extent they are not recitations of historical fact, constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws and are based on our current expectations and assumptions. The words “believe,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “intend,” “expect,” “plan,” “outlook,” “scheduled,” “forecast” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties.
Statements and assumptions with respect to future sales, income and cash flows, program performance, the outcome of litigation, anticipated pension cost and funding, environmental remediation cost estimates, planned acquisitions or dispositions of assets, or the anticipated consequences are examples of forward-looking statements. Numerous factors, including the risk factors described in the following section, could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements.
Our actual financial results likely will be different from those projected due to the inherent nature of projections. Given these uncertainties, forward-looking statements should not be relied on in making investment decisions. The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K speak only as of the date of its filing. Except where required by applicable law, we expressly disclaim a duty to provide updates to forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K to reflect
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subsequent events, changed circumstances, changes in expectations, or the estimates and assumptions associated with them. The forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K are intended to be subject to the safe harbor protection provided by the federal securities laws.

ITEM  1A.    Risk Factors
An investment in our common stock or debt securities involves risks and uncertainties. We seek to identify, manage and mitigate risks to our business, but risk and uncertainty cannot be eliminated or necessarily predicted. The outcome of one or more of these risks could have a material effect on our operating results, financial position, or cash flows. You should carefully consider the following factors, in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before deciding to purchase our common stock or debt securities.
Risks Related to our Reliance on Government Contracts

We depend heavily on contracts with the U.S. Government for a substantial portion of our business. Changes in the U.S. Government’s priorities, or delays or reductions in spending could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We derived 71% of our total consolidated net sales from the U.S. Government in 2021, including 62% from the DoD. We expect to continue to derive most of our sales from work performed under U.S. Government contracts. Those contracts are conditioned upon the continuing availability of Congressional appropriations. Congress usually appropriates funds on a fiscal year (FY) basis even though contract performance may extend over many years. Consequently, contracts are often partially funded initially and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations over time. If we incur costs in excess of funds obligated on a contract or in advance of a contract award, we may be at risk of not being reimbursed for those costs unless and until additional funds are obligated under the contract or the contract is awarded and funded.
Budget uncertainty, the risk of future budget cuts, the potential for U.S. Government shutdowns, the use of continuing resolutions, and the federal debt ceiling can adversely affect our industry and the funding for our programs. If appropriations were delayed or a government shutdown were to occur and were to continue for an extended period of time, we could be at risk of program cancellations and other disruptions and nonpayment. When the U.S. Government operates under a continuing resolution, new contract and program starts are restricted and funding for our programs may be unavailable, reduced or delayed. Shifting funding priorities or federal budget compromises, could also result in reductions in overall defense spending on an absolute or inflation-adjusted basis, which could adversely impact our business. Our business could also be adversely impacted by reductions or delays in spending by non-U.S. government customers who are facing budget pressures.
We believe our diverse range of products and services generally make it less likely that cuts in any specific contract or program will affect our business on a long-term basis. However, termination of multiple or large programs or contracts could adversely affect our business and future financial performance. Changes in funding priorities could also reduce opportunities in existing programs and in future programs where we intend to compete. While we would expect to compete and be well positioned as the incumbent on existing programs, we may not be successful and, even if we are successful, the replacement programs may be funded at lower levels. In addition, our ability to grow in key areas such as hypersonics programs, classified programs and next-generation franchise programs will also be affected by the overall budget environment, whether development programs transition to production and the timing of such transition, all of which are dependent on U.S. Government authorization and funding.
The F-35 program comprises a material portion of our revenue and reductions in funding for this program and risks related to the development, production, sustainment, performance, schedule, cost and requirements of the program could adversely affect our performance.
The F-35 program, which consists of multiple development, production and sustainment contracts, is our largest program and represented 27% of our total consolidated net sales in 2021. A decision by the U.S. Government or other governments to cut spending on this program or reduce or delay planned orders would have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. Given the size and complexity of the F-35 program, we anticipate that there will be continual reviews related to aircraft performance, program schedule, cost, and requirements as part of the DoD, Congressional, and international countries’ oversight and budgeting processes. Current program challenges include supplier, Lockheed Martin and partner performance (including COVID-19 performance-related challenges), software development, the receipt of funding for contracts on a timely basis, execution of future flight tests and findings resulting from testing and operating the aircraft, the level of cost associated with life cycle operations, sustainment and potential contractual obligations, and the ability to continue to reduce the unit production costs and improve affordability.
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Our planned production rates and deliveries have been affected and could continue to be affected by COVID-19 or supplier delays which affect our results of operations. We also may not be successful in making hardware and software upgrades and other modernization capabilities in a timely manner, including as a result of dependencies on suppliers, which could increase costs and create schedule delays. Our ability to capture and retain future F-35 growth in development, production and sustainment is dependent on the success of our efforts to achieve F-35 sustainment performance, customer affordability, supply chain improvements, continued reliability improvements and other efficiencies, some of which are outside our control.
We are subject to procurement laws and regulations, including those that enable the U.S. Government to terminate contracts for convenience. Our business and reputation could be adversely affected if we or those we do business with fail to comply with these laws.
We must comply with laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. Government contract laws and regulations affect how we do business with our customers and impose certain risks and costs on our business. A violation of these laws and regulations by us, our employees, others working on our behalf, a supplier or a joint venture partner could harm our reputation and result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the termination of our contracts, suspension or debarment from bidding on or being awarded contracts, loss of our ability to export products or perform services and civil or criminal investigations or proceedings. In addition, costs to comply with new government regulations can increase our costs, reduce our margins and affect our competitiveness.
Government contract laws and regulations can impose terms or obligations that are different than those typically found in commercial transactions. For example, the U.S. Government may terminate any of our government contracts and subcontracts not only for default based on our performance but also at its convenience. Upon termination for convenience of a fixed-price type contract, typically we are entitled to receive the purchase price for delivered items, reimbursement for allowable costs for work-in-process and an allowance for profit on the contract or adjustment for loss if completion of performance would have resulted in a loss. Upon termination for convenience of a cost-reimbursable contract, we normally are entitled to reimbursement of allowable costs plus a portion of the fee, and allowable costs include our cost to terminate agreements with our suppliers and subcontractors. Programs occasionally do not have sufficient funds appropriated to cover the termination costs if the government were to terminate them for convenience. Under such circumstances, the U.S. Government could assert that it is not required to appropriate additional funding.
A termination arising out of our default may expose us to liability and have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. In addition, the U.S. Government could terminate a prime contract under which we are a subcontractor, notwithstanding the fact that our performance and the quality of the products or services we delivered were consistent with our contractual obligations as a subcontractor. In the case of termination for default, the U.S. Government could make claims to reduce the contract value or recover its procurement costs and could assess other special penalties.
Our programs for the U.S. Government often operate for periods of time under Undefinitized Contract Actions (UCAs), which means that we begin performing our obligations before the terms, specifications or price are finally agreed to between the parties. The U.S. Government has (and has exercised in the past) the ability to unilaterally definitize contracts, which, absent a successful appeal, obligates us to perform under terms and conditions imposed by the U.S. Government. This can affect our ability to negotiate mutually agreeable contract terms and, if a contract is unilaterally imposed upon us, it may negatively affect our expected profit and cash flows on a program or impose burdensome terms.
Certain of our U.S. Government contracts span one or more base years and include multiple option years. The U.S. Government may decide not to exercise option periods, which could result in a loss of expected sales or profits. The U.S. Government also may decide to exercise option periods for contracts under which it is expected that our costs may exceed the contract price or ceiling, which could result in losses or unreimbursed costs.
Evolving U.S. Government procurement policies, increased emphasis on cost over performance and rapid acquisition initiatives could adversely affect our business.
The U.S. Government could implement procurement policies that negatively impact our profitability or the ability to win new business. Changes in procurement policy favoring more incentive-based fee arrangements, different award fee criteria or government contract negotiation offers based upon the customer’s view of what our costs should be (as compared to our actual costs) may affect the predictability of our profit rates or make it more difficult to compete on certain types of programs. In addition, changes in contract financing policy for fixed-price contracts, such as changes in performance and progress payments policies, including a reversal or modification of the DoD’s March 2020 increase to the applicable progress payment rate from 80% to 90%, could significantly affect the timing of our cash flows. Our customers also may seek to negotiate non-traditional contract provisions or contract types. The U.S. Government’s preference for fixed-price contracting has resulted in what we believe to be the inappropriate application of fixed-priced contracting methods to development programs. By their nature, the
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technical challenges, costs and timing of development programs are difficult to estimate and the use of fixed-price instead of cost-reimbursable contracts for such programs increases the financial risk to the contractor. This has resulted in losses on certain fixed-price development programs and could result in additional losses in the future. In addition, an increased number of contract solicitations require the contractor to bid upfront on cost-reimbursable development work and the follow-on fixed-price production options in one submission. This requirement increases the risk that we may experience lower margins than expected, or a loss, on the production options because we must estimate the cost of producing a product before it has been developed. These risks may cause us not to bid on certain future programs, which could adversely affect our future growth prospects and financial performance. See Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details about losses incurred on certain programs, including fixed-price development programs. In addition, given the customer’s emphasis on cost, even if we effectively manage program life-cycle and sustainment costs and meet customer affordability targets, the customer may elect to recompete programs at the end of existing contracts, which may result in a lost business opportunity or reduce operating margins. From time to time, the U.S. Government also has proposed contract terms, imposed internal policies, or taken positions that represent fundamental changes from historical practices or that we believe are inconsistent with the FAR or other laws and regulations and which could adversely affect our business.
The DoD is increasingly pursuing rapid acquisition pathways and procedures for new technologies, including through so called “other transaction authority” agreements (OTAs). While OTAs do not currently represent a significant portion of our overall contracts (less than 2% of total backlog), in recent years the DoD has increased the frequency of use and the size of OTAs and we expect this trend to continue. OTAs are exempt from many traditional procurement laws, including the FAR, and may be used, subject to certain conditions, for research, prototype development and follow-on production for a successful prototype. The conditions to award OTAs include, in certain instances, that a significant portion of the work under the OTA is performed by a non-traditional defense contractor or that a portion of the cost of the protype project is funded by non-governmental sources. If we cannot successfully adapt to the DoD’s rapid acquisition processes or if the DoD significantly increases the use of OTAs with non-traditional defense contractors or increasingly mandates cost sharing, then we may lose strategic new business opportunities in high-growth areas and our future performance and results could be adversely affected. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to identify technological innovation and adapt it to our platforms in light of changes in procurement policies that emphasize acquiring technologies with shorter life cycles.
Our profitability and cash flow may vary based on the mix of our contracts and programs, our performance, and our ability to control costs.
Our profitability and cash flow may vary materially depending on the types of government contracts undertaken, the nature of products produced or services performed under those contracts, the costs incurred in performing the work, the achievement of other performance objectives and the stage of performance at which the right to receive fees is determined, particularly under award and incentive-fee contracts. Failure to perform to customer expectations and contract requirements may result in reduced fees or losses and may adversely affect our financial performance. Our backlog includes a variety of contract types and represents the sales we expect to recognize for our products and services in the future. In addition, a significant portion of our contracts are classified by the U.S. Government, which impose security requirements that limit our ability to discuss our performance on these contracts, including any specific risks, disputes and claims.
Contract types primarily include fixed-price and cost-reimbursable contracts. Under each type of contract, if we are unable to control costs, including due to greater than anticipated inflation or unexpected delays, our operating results could be adversely affected, particularly if we are unable to demonstrate an increase in contract value to our customers. Cost overruns or the failure to perform on existing programs also may adversely affect our ability to retain existing programs and win future contract awards, or could cause the customer to terminate the contract for convenience. Given broader inflation in the economy, we are monitoring the risk inflation presents to active and future contracts. To date we have not seen broad based increases in costs from inflation that are material to the business as a whole; however, if we began to experience greater than expected supply chain and labor inflation our profits and margins under our contracts, in particular fixed price contracts, could be adversely affected.
Under fixed-price contracts, we agree to perform specified work for a pre-determined price. If our actual costs exceed our estimates our profits are reduced and we could incur a loss. Some fixed-price contracts have a performance-based component under which we may earn incentive payments or incur financial penalties based on our performance. For additional risks related to the DoD’s current use of fixed-price contracts see the risk factor above. See Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details about losses incurred on certain fixed-price programs to date. Cost-reimbursable contracts provide for the payment of allowable costs incurred during performance of the contract plus a fee up to a ceiling based on the amount that has been funded. Contracts for development programs with complex design and technical challenges are often cost-reimbursable. In these cases, the associated financial risks primarily relate to a reduction in fees and potential program cancellation if cost, schedule or technical performance issues
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arise. Our backlog also includes contracts for the transition from development to production (e.g., low rate initial production (LRIP) contracts), where the challenge of starting and stabilizing a manufacturing production and test line while the final design is being validated and managing change in requirements or capabilities create performance and financial risks to our business. These contracts frequently are cost-reimbursable or fixed-price incentive-fee contracts. Generally, if our costs exceed the contract target cost or are not allowable under the applicable regulations, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement for all costs and may have our fees reduced or eliminated. There are also contracts for production, as well as operations and maintenance of the delivered products, that have the challenge of achieving a stable production and delivery rate, while maintaining operability of the product after delivery. These contracts are primarily fixed-price. In addition, certain contracts associated with our Space business segment contain provisions that require us to forfeit fees, pay penalties, or provide replacement systems in the event of performance failure, which could negatively affect our earnings and cash flows.
We are routinely subject to audit by our customers on government contracts and the results of those audits could have an adverse effect on our business, reputation and results of operations.
U.S. Government agencies, including the Defense Contract Audit Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency and various agency Inspectors General, routinely audit and investigate government contractors. These agencies review a contractor’s performance under its contracts, its cost structure, its business systems and its compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. The U.S. Government has the ability to decrease or withhold certain payments when it deems systems subject to its review to be inadequate. Additionally, any costs found to be misclassified may be subject to repayment and from time to time we have had substantial disagreements with government auditors regarding the allowability of costs incurred by us under government contracts, which delays payments even if we are correct in our positions. We have unaudited or unsettled incurred cost claims related to past years, which limits our ability to issue final billings on contracts for which authorized and appropriated funds may be expiring or can result in delays in final billings and our ability to close out a contract.
If an audit or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including reductions of the value of contracts, contract modifications or terminations, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, penalties, fines, suspension, or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. Government. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us. Similar government oversight and risks to our business and reputation exist in most other countries where we conduct business.
Increased competition and bid protests in a budget-constrained environment may make it more difficult to maintain our financial performance and customer relationships.
A substantial portion of our business is awarded through competitive bidding. The U.S. Government increasingly has relied on competitive contract award types, including indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity and other multi-award contracts, which have the potential to create pricing pressure and to increase our costs by requiring us to submit multiple bids and proposals. Multi-award contracts require us to make sustained efforts to obtain task orders under the contract. Additionally, competitive bids that do not contain cost-realism evaluation criteria can lead to competitors taking aggressive pricing positions. The U.S. Government also may not award us large competitive contracts that we otherwise might have won in an effort to maintain a broader industrial base.
We may encounter bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards seeking to overturn the award. Unsuccessful bidders also may protest with the goal of being awarded a subcontract for a portion of the work in return for withdrawing the protest. Bid protests can result in significant expenses to us, contract modifications or even loss of the contract award and the resolution can extend the time until contract activity can begin and delay the recognition of sales. Our efforts to protest or challenge any bids for contracts that were not awarded to us also may be unsuccessful and could result in our incurrence of significant expense.
We are facing increased competition from emerging competitors, including startups and non-traditional defense contractors, while, at the same time, many of our customers are facing significant budget pressures and are trying to do more with less by cutting costs, using fixed price contracts, deferring large procurements, identifying more affordable solutions, performing certain work internally rather than hiring contractors, and reducing product development cycles. If competitors can offer lower cost services and products, or provide services or products more quickly, at equivalent or even reduced capabilities, we may lose new business opportunities or contract recompetes, which could adversely affect our future results. Furthermore, acquisitions in our industry, including vertical integration, could also result in increased competition or limit our access to certain suppliers without appropriate remedies to protect our interests. To remain competitive, we must maintain consistently strong customer relationships, seek to understand customer priorities and provide superior performance, advanced technology solutions and services at an affordable cost with the agility that our customers require to satisfy their mission objectives in an increasingly price competitive environment. Our success in achieving these goals may depend, among other things, on accurately assessing our customers’ needs and our competitors’ capabilities, containing our total costs relative to competitors,
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successfully and efficiently investing in emerging technologies, adopting innovative business models and adaptive pricing methods, effectively collaborating across our business areas, and adopting and integrating new digital manufacturing and operating technologies and tools into our product lifecycles and processes.
Other Risks Related to our Operations

The effects of COVID-19 and other potential future public health crises, epidemics, pandemics or similar events on our business, operating results and cash flows are uncertain.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to present business challenges, and we continue to experience impacts related to COVID-19, primarily in increased coronavirus-related costs, delays in supplier deliveries, travel restrictions, site access and quarantine restrictions, employee absences, remote work and adjusted work schedules. We took steps to comply with the executive order mandating COVID-19 vaccines across our workforce, with exceptions approved for employees based on medical reasons or religious beliefs, until it was enjoined by a federal court in December 2021. As of December 31, 2021, more than 96% of our U.S. employee population had been vaccinated or received an approved exception. If the executive order is reinstated on appeal, or new mandates implemented, it is uncertain to what extent compliance with any such vaccine mandates may result in adverse impacts such as workforce attrition for us or our suppliers or reduced morale or efficiency. If the adverse impact is significant for us or our suppliers, our operations and ability to execute on our contracts could be adversely affected. The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our operational and financial performance in future periods, including our ability to execute our programs in the expected timeframe, remains uncertain and will depend on future pandemic-related developments, including the duration of the pandemic, potential subsequent waves of COVID-19 infection or potential new variants, the effectiveness and adoption of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics, supplier impacts and related government actions to prevent and manage disease spread, including the implementation of any federal, state, local or foreign vaccine mandates, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. The long-term impacts of COVID-19 on government budgets and other funding priorities, including international priorities, that impact demand for our products and services and our business are also difficult to predict but could negatively affect our future results and performance.
In accordance with the Department of Homeland Security’s identification of the Defense Industrial Base as a critical infrastructure sector in March 2020, our U.S. production facilities have continued to operate during the pandemic, however, our operations have been adjusted in response to the pandemic. Staffing levels at our facilities, our customer facilities, and our supplier facilities have and could continue to fluctuate as a result of COVID-19, which could negatively impact our business. In addition, countries other than the U.S. have implemented different responses to the pandemic that can affect our international operations and the operations of our suppliers and customers around the world. Base closures, travel restrictions, and quarantine requirements both within and outside the U.S. have affected our normal operations and resulted in some schedule delays and future or prolonged occurrences of these could adversely affect our ability to achieve contract milestones and our results of operations.
As described in the risk factor below, we rely on other companies and the U.S. Government to provide materials, major components and products, and to perform a portion of the services that are provided to our customers under the terms of most of our contracts. Global supply chain disruption caused by COVID-19 has impacted some of our programs and could impact our ability to perform on our contracts, in particular in instances where there is not a qualified second source of supply. We have been working with our suppliers and customers to manage COVID-19 impacts, including by accelerating payments to certain suppliers based on a risk assessed need. However, if alternatives or other mitigations are not effective, deliveries and other milestones on affected programs could be adversely impacted.
We continue to monitor the impacts of COVID-19 on the fair value of our assets. While we do not currently anticipate any material impairments on the carrying value of our assets as a result of COVID-19, future changes in expectations for sales, earnings and cash flows related to intangible assets and goodwill below our current projections could cause these assets to be impaired.
We are the prime contractor on most of our contracts and if our subcontractors, suppliers or teaming agreement or joint venture partners fail to perform their obligations, our performance and ability to win future business could be harmed.
We rely on other companies to provide materials, major components and products, and to perform a portion of the services that are provided to our customers under the terms of most of our contracts. These arrangements may involve subcontracts, teaming arrangements, joint ventures or supply agreements with other companies upon which we rely (contracting parties). There is a risk that the contracting party does not perform at all or to our expectations or meet affordability targets and we may have disputes with our contracting parties, including disputes regarding the quality and timeliness of work performed, workshares, customer concerns about the other party’s performance, our failure to issue or extend task orders, or our hiring the personnel of a subcontractor, teammate or joint venture partner or vice versa. We could also be adversely affected by actions by
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or issues experienced by our contracting parties that are outside of our control, such as misconduct and reputational issues involving our contracting parties, which could subject us to liability or adversely affect our ability to compete for contract awards.
Changes in the economic environment, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical events, defense budgets, trade sanctions and constraints on available financing, and the highly competitive and budget-constrained environment in which we operate, may adversely affect the financial stability and viability of our contracting parties or their ability to meet their performance requirements or to provide needed supplies or services on a timely basis. Some scarce raw materials required for our products are largely controlled by a single country, including rare earth minerals that are largely controlled by China, and therefore can be adversely impacted by potential trade actions involving that country. Advanced microelectronics, including semiconductors, underpin many of our current and future critical technologies and platforms and global shortages of these products due to COVID-19 or other supply chain challenges could result in increased procurement lead times and costs and potential shortages, which could impact our performance. Additionally, our efforts to increase the efficiency of our operations and improve the affordability of our products and services could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain suppliers. We must comply with specific procurement requirements that can limit the source of supplies and we do not have secondary suppliers for some supplies. Because the identification and qualification of new or additional suppliers can take an extended period of time, issues with suppliers or trade actions that limit our ability to use certain suppliers can have an adverse impact on our business. Complying with U.S. Government contracting regulations that limit the source or manufacture of suppliers and impose stringent cybersecurity regulations also may create challenges for our supply chain and increase costs.
A failure by one or more of our contracting parties to provide the agreed-upon supplies or perform the agreed-upon services on a timely basis, according to specifications, or at all, may affect our ability to perform our obligations and require that we transition the work to other companies. Contracting party performance deficiencies may result in additional costs or delays in product deliveries and affect our operating results and could result in a customer terminating our contract for default or convenience. A default termination could expose us to liability and affect our ability to compete for future contracts and orders. A failure by our contracting parties to meet affordability targets could negatively affect our profitability, result in contract losses and affect our ability to win new business.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop new technologies, products and services and efficiently produce and deliver existing products.
Many of the products and services we provide are highly engineered and involve sophisticated technologies with related complex manufacturing and systems integration processes. Our customers’ requirements change and evolve regularly. Accordingly, our future performance depends, in part, on our ability to adapt to changing customer needs rapidly, identify emerging technological trends, develop and manufacture innovative products and services efficiently and bring those offerings to market quickly at cost-effective prices. This includes efforts to implement emerging digital and network technologies and capabilities. To advance our innovation and position us to meet our customers’ requirements, we make investments in emerging technologies that we believe are needed to keep pace with rapid industry innovation and seek to collaborate with commercial entities that we believe have complementary technologies to ours. These entities may not be accustomed to government contracting and may be unwilling to agree to the government’s customary terms, including those governing intellectual property. In addition, our relationships and contracts with these commercial entities may present different risks and challenges, including with respect to intellectual property, liability and indemnification terms, than what we are accustomed to with our government customers. Due to the complex and often experimental nature of the products and services we offer, we may experience technical difficulties during the development of new products or technologies. These technical difficulties could result in delays and higher costs, which may negatively impact our financial results, and could divert resources from other projects, until such products or technologies are fully developed. See Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further details about losses incurred on certain development programs. Additionally, there can be no assurance that our development projects will be successful or meet the needs of our customers.
Our competitors may also develop new technology, or offerings, or more efficient ways to produce existing products that could cause our existing offerings to become obsolete or that could gain market acceptance before our own competitive offerings. If we fail in our development projects or if our new products or technologies fail to achieve customer acceptance, we may be unsuccessful in obtaining new contracts or winning all or a portion of next generation programs, and this could adversely affect our future performance and financial results. We also may not be successful in our efforts to grow in key areas such as hypersonics, classified programs, and winning next generation franchise programs, which could adversely affect our future performance.
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International sales may pose different economic, regulatory, competition and other risks.
In 2021, 28% of our total net sales were from international customers and these sales may grow in the future. International sales are subject to numerous political and economic factors, budget uncertainty, regulatory requirements, significant competition, taxation, and other risks associated with doing business outside the U.S. In international sales, we face substantial competition from both U.S. manufacturers and international manufacturers whose governments sometimes provide research and development assistance, marketing subsidies and other assistance for their products and services.
Our international business is conducted through foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government and by direct commercial sales (DCS) to international customers. FMS contracts with the U.S. Government are subject to the FAR and the DFARS. In contrast, DCS transactions represent sales by us directly to international customers and are not subject to the FAR or the DFARS, although they are subject to the procurement regulations of the international customer. Sales to international customers are subject to U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, investments, taxation, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Control Reform Act of 2018. While we have extensive policies in place to comply with such laws and regulations, failure by us, our employees or others working on our behalf to comply with these laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including suspension, debarment from bidding for or performing government contracts, or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on us. We frequently team with international subcontractors and suppliers who also are exposed to similar risks.
International sales present risks that are different and potentially greater than those encountered in our U.S. business. We believe DCS transactions present the greatest potential risks because they involve direct commercial relationships with parties with whom we typically have less familiarity. Additionally, international procurement and local country rules and regulations, contract laws, and judicial systems differ from those in the U.S. and, in some cases, may be less developed than in the U.S., which could impair our ability to enforce contracts and increase the risk of adverse or unpredictable outcomes, including the possibility that certain matters that would be considered civil matters in the U.S. are treated as criminal matters in other countries.
In conjunction with defense procurements, some international customers require contractors to comply with industrial cooperation regulations, including entering into industrial participation or industrial development agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, as a condition to obtaining orders for our products and services. Industrial participation or development agreements generally extend over several years and obligate the contractor to perform certain commitments, which may include in-country purchases, technology transfers, local manufacturing support, consulting support to in-country projects, investments in joint ventures and financial support projects. The customer’s expectations in respect of the scope of offset commitments can be substantial, including high-value content, and may exceed existing local technical capability. Failure to meet these commitments, which can be subjective and outside of our control, may result in significant penalties, and could lead to a reduction in sales to a country. Furthermore, certain of our existing industrial development agreements are dependent upon the successful operation of joint ventures that we do not control and involve products and services that are outside of our core business, which may increase the risk that we fail to meet our industrial cooperation agreements, expose us to compliance risks of the joint venture and impair our ability to recover our investment. For more information on our industrial development obligations, including the notional value of our remaining industrial development obligations and potential penalties for non-compliance, see “Contractual Commitments” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A).
Geopolitical issues and considerations could have a significant effect on our business.
Our international business is highly sensitive to changes in regulations (including tariffs, sanctions, embargoes, export and import controls and other trade restrictions), political environments or security risks that may affect our ability to conduct business outside of the U.S., including those regarding investment, procurement, taxation and repatriation of earnings.
On July 14, 2020 and again on October 26, 2020, the People’s Republic of China (China) announced it may impose sanctions against Lockheed Martin in response to Congressional Notifications of potential Foreign Military Sales to Taiwan, which included sales of Lockheed Martin products. We will continue to follow official U.S. Government guidance as it relates to sales to Taiwan and do not see a material impact on our sales at this time. China has not specified the nature of any such sanctions, but could seek to restrict our commercial sales or supply chain, including the supply of rare earth or other raw materials, and could also impose sanctions on our suppliers, teammates or partners. The nature, timing and potential impact of any sanctions that may be imposed by China or any other related actions that may be taken are uncertain.
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International sales also may be adversely affected by actions taken by the U.S. Government in the exercise of foreign policy, Congressional oversight or the financing of particular programs, including the prevention or imposition of conditions upon the sale and delivery of our products, the imposition of sanctions, or Congressional action to block sales of our products. For example, the U.S. Government has imposed certain sanctions on Turkish entities and persons as described in the risk factor below, and could act in the future to prevent or restrict sales to other customers. Our international business also may be impacted by changes in foreign national priorities, foreign government budgets, global economic conditions, and fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. Sales of military products and any associated industrial cooperation agreements are also affected by defense budgets and U.S. foreign policy, including trade restrictions and disputes, and there could be significant delays or other issues in reaching definitive agreements for announced programs and international customer priorities could change. Additionally, the timing of orders from our international customers can be less predictable than for our U.S. customers and may lead to fluctuations in the amount reported each year for our international sales.
U.S. Government sanctions on Turkey could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flows.
As a result of Turkey accepting delivery of the Russian S-400 air and missile defense system, the U.S. Government removed Turkey from the F-35 program in 2019 and in December 2020 imposed sanctions on Turkey’s defense procurement agency (SSB) and certain of the agency’s officers under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA). The primary sanction imposed was a restriction on all new U.S. export licenses and authorizations for any goods or technology transferred to SSB. This sanction does not apply to current, valid export licenses and authorizations; however, it does apply to any modifications or extensions of those licenses. We expect the U.S. Government to continue to engage Turkey on these issues, but we have no indication that the sanctions will be removed, that additional sanctions will not be imposed or that Turkey will not issue reciprocal sanctions.
Turkish suppliers continue to produce component parts for the F-35 program, some of which are single-sourced. We have made significant progress transitioning to non-Turkish suppliers, but due to the procedure to qualify new parts and suppliers, this collaborative process between the DoD and Lockheed Martin is ongoing. During 2020, the DoD publicly confirmed that Turkish suppliers would be permitted to provide certain components for the F-35 through 2022. Efforts to date to re-establish our replacement capacity have significantly reduced our risk, but final resolution of supply arrangements on a limited number of remaining components could affect F-35 deliveries, and any related work stoppage would impact cost. We will continue to follow official U.S. Government guidance as it relates to completed aircraft that were produced for Turkey and the export and import of component parts from the Turkish supply chain. The U.S. Government sanctions on SSB and certain affiliated persons, and Turkey’s removal from the F-35 program have not resulted in significant adverse financial effects on the F-35 program to date; however, unforeseen actions could impact the timing of orders, disrupt the production of aircraft, delay delivery of aircraft, disrupt delivery of sustainment components produced in Turkey and impact funding on the F-35 program, including impacts resulting from any reprogramming of funds that may be necessary to mitigate the impact of procuring alternate sources for Turkish made components. Although, in the case of the F-35 program, we expect that these costs ultimately would be recovered from the U.S. Government; the availability or timing of any recovery could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations.
We have a number of contracts with Turkish industry for the Turkish Utility Helicopter Program (TUHP), which anticipates co-production with Turkish industry for production of T70 helicopters for use in Turkey, as well as the related provision of Turkish goods and services under buy-back or offset obligations, to include the future sales of helicopters built in Turkey for sale globally. Although existing export licenses are not subject to the current sanctions, we continue to expect pending and future export licensing applications and any required modifications, extensions or changes in scope to the existing licenses where SSB or any of certain affiliated persons is a party to the underlying transaction to be denied, which denials would adversely affect our ability to perform the impacted contracts. For example, since April 2021, we have received multiple denials from the U.S. Department of State for export, import and manufacturing licenses pertaining to TUHP. These denials prevent us from performing certain significant obligations under contracts for TUHP, which has and will affect our sales and impact our ability to recover certain costs. As a result of these license denials, we have provided force majeure notices under the affected contracts and these contracts may be restructured or terminated, which could result in a further reduction in sales, the imposition of penalties or assessment of damages, and increased unrecoverable costs. In addition, we have other programs where we work with Turkish industry, including for domestic U.S. Black Hawk® helicopter production, that rely on components from Turkish suppliers. While these commercial relationships are not affected by the current sanctions, they could be adversely affected by the imposition of additional sanctions.
Although the existing sanctions adversely affect our participation in TUHP, they are not currently expected to have a material effect on our overall business. The sanctions, however, may result in the loss of future sales opportunities to and in Turkey and are adversely affecting our relationships with Turkish-based suppliers who we have worked with for many years, and any future sanctions by the U.S. Government or reciprocal actions by Turkey or Turkish industry could result in further
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restrictions on exports or imports, reductions in backlog, returns of advance payments, costs to develop alternate supply sources, restrictions on payments, force majeure events or contract restructurings or terminations. Such activity could also result in claims from our customers and suppliers, which may include the amount established in any settlement agreements, the costs of evaluating and negotiating settlement agreements or, if settlement discussions fail, potential adverse findings in arbitral or court proceedings and related costs. These effects could have a material impact on our operating results, financial position and cash flows.
We may be unable to benefit fully from or adequately protect our intellectual property rights or use third-party intellectual property, which could negatively affect our business.
We own a substantial number of U.S. and foreign patents and trademarks related to the products and services we provide. In addition to owning a large portfolio of patents and trademarks, we develop and own other intellectual property, including copyrights, trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how, which contribute significantly to our business. We also license intellectual property to and from third parties. The FAR and DFARS provide that the U.S. Government obtains certain rights in intellectual property, including patents, developed by us and our subcontractors and suppliers in performance of government contracts or with government funding. The U.S. Government may use or authorize others, including competitors, to use such intellectual property. Non-U.S. governments may also have certain rights in patents and other intellectual property developed in performance of our contracts with these entities. The U.S. Government is pursuing aggressive positions regarding the types of intellectual property to which government use rights apply and when it is appropriate for the government to insist on broad use rights. The DoD is also implementing an overarching intellectual property acquisition policy that will require a greater focus and planning as to intellectual property rights for its programs, and we have no assurance as to the potential impacts of this policy or any associated regulatory changes on future acquisitions. The DoD’s efforts could affect our ability to protect and exploit our intellectual property and to leverage supplier intellectual property, for example, if we are unable to obtain necessary licenses from our suppliers to meet government requirements. Additionally, third parties may assert that our products or services infringe their intellectual property rights, which could result in costly and time-consuming disputes, subject us to damages and injunctions and adversely affect our ability to compete and perform on contracts.
Our business and financial performance depends on our ability to identify, attract and retain a highly skilled workforce.
Due to the specialized nature of our business, our performance is dependent upon our ability to identify, attract and retain a workforce with the requisite skills in multiple areas including: engineering, science, manufacturing, information technology, cybersecurity, business development and strategy and management. Our operating performance is also dependent upon personnel who hold security clearances and receive substantial training to work on certain programs or tasks and can be difficult to replace on a timely basis if we experience unplanned attrition. Additionally, as we expand our operations internationally, it is increasingly important to hire and retain personnel with relevant experience in local laws, regulations, customs, traditions and business practices.
As we consider measures to increase the efficiency of our operations and improve the affordability of our products and services, such as consolidating and relocating certain operations, they may affect personnel retention. Additionally, a substantial portion of our workforce (including personnel in leadership positions) are nearing retirement.
To the extent that we lose experienced personnel, it is critical that we develop other employees, hire new qualified personnel, and successfully manage the short and long-term transfer of critical knowledge and skills. Competition for talent is intense, and this may affect our ability to successfully attract or retain personnel with the requisite skills or clearances. We increasingly compete with commercial technology companies outside of the aerospace and defense industry for qualified technical, cyber and scientific positions as the number of qualified domestic engineers is decreasing and the number of cyber professionals is not keeping up with demand. To the extent that these companies grow at a faster rate or face fewer cost and product pricing constraints, they may be able to offer more attractive compensation and other benefits to candidates, including in the recruitment of our existing employees. In cases where the demand for skilled personnel exceeds supply, we could experience higher labor, recruiting or training costs in order to attract and retain such employees. We could experience difficulty in performing our contracts and executing on new or growing programs if we have a shortage of skilled employees or if our recruiting is delayed. We also must manage leadership development and succession planning throughout our business. While we have processes in place for management transition and the transfer of knowledge and skills, the loss of key personnel, coupled with an inability to adequately train other personnel, hire new personnel or transfer knowledge and skills, could significantly impact our ability to perform under our contracts and execute on new or growing programs.
Beginning with the pandemic, a significant portion of our workforce began working remotely and we expect a significant portion to continue working remotely greater than 50% of the time when the pandemic abates. While we see many benefits to remote and hybrid work and have adopted new tools and processes to support the workforce, if we are unable to effectively
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adapt to this hybrid work environment long term, then we may experience a less cohesive workforce, increased attrition, reduced program performance and less innovation.
Approximately 20% of our employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements with various unions. If we encounter difficulties with renegotiations or renewals of collective bargaining arrangements or are unsuccessful in those efforts, we could incur additional costs and experience work stoppages. Union actions at suppliers can also affect us. Any delays or work stoppages could adversely affect our ability to perform under our contracts, which could negatively impact our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
Our efforts to minimize the likelihood and impact of adverse cybersecurity incidents and to protect data and intellectual property may not be successful and our business could be negatively affected by cyber or other security threats or other disruptions.
Given the nature of our business, we routinely experience various cybersecurity threats to our information technology infrastructure, unauthorized attempts to gain access to our company, employee- and customer-sensitive information, insider threats and denial-of-service attacks as do our customers, suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners. We experience similar security threats at customer sites that we operate and manage.
The threats we face vary from attacks common to most industries, such as ransomware, to more advanced and persistent, highly organized adversaries, including nation state actors, which target us and other defense contractors. These threats can cause disruptions to our business operations. If we are unable to protect sensitive information, including complying with evolving information security and data protection/privacy regulations, our customers or governmental authorities could question the adequacy of our threat mitigation and detection processes and procedures. Moreover, depending on the severity of an incident, our customers’ data, our employees’ data, our intellectual property (including trade secrets and research, development and engineering know-how), and other third-party data (such as subcontractors, suppliers and vendors) could be compromised. Products and services we provide to customers also carry cybersecurity risks, including risks that they could be breached or fail to detect, prevent or combat attacks, which could result in losses to our customers and claims against us, and could harm our relationships with our customers.
We have an extensive global security organization whose mission is to protect our systems and data, including a Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT) to defend against cyber attacks and annual training of our employees on protection of sensitive information, including testing intended to prevent the success of “phishing” attacks. Additionally, we partner with our defense industrial base peers, government agencies and cyber associations to share intelligence to further defend against cyber attacks. We also have a corporate-wide counterintelligence and insider threat detection program to proactively identify external and internal threats, and mitigate those threats in a timely manner. However, because of the persistence, sophistication and volume of cyber attacks, we may not be successful in defending against all such attacks and due to the evolving nature of these security threats and the national security aspects of much of the data we protect, the impact of any future incident cannot be predicted.
We also typically work cooperatively with our customers, suppliers, subcontractors, joint venture partners and entities we acquire, who are subject to similar threats, to seek to minimize the impact of cyber threats, other security threats or business disruptions. These entities, which are typically outside our control and may have access to our information, have varying levels of cybersecurity expertise and safeguards, and their relationships with government contractors, including us, may increase the likelihood that they are targeted by the same cyber threats we face. We have thousands of direct suppliers and even more indirect suppliers with a wide variety of systems and cybersecurity capabilities and adversaries actively seek to exploit security and cybersecurity weaknesses in our supply chain. A breach in our multi-tiered supply chain could impact our data or customer deliverables. We must rely on this supply chain for detecting and reporting cyber incidents, which could affect our ability to report or respond to cybersecurity incidents effectively or in a timely manner. Because of the ongoing supply chain cyber security related threats, our customers continue to seek that large prime contractors, like Lockheed Martin, take steps to assure the cyber capabilities of their supply chain. Consequently, cyber security events in our supply chain could have an adverse impact on our relationships with our customers.
The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. Additionally, some cyber technologies we develop under contract for our customers, particularly those related to homeland security, may raise potential liabilities related to intellectual property and civil liberties, including privacy concerns, which may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means or involve reputational risk. Our enterprise risk management program includes threat detection and cybersecurity mitigation plans, and our disclosure controls and procedures address cybersecurity and include elements intended to ensure that there is an analysis of potential disclosure obligations arising from security breaches. We also maintain compliance programs to address the potential applicability of restrictions on trading while in possession of material, nonpublic information generally and in connection with a cybersecurity breach.
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In addition to cyber threats, we face threats to the security of our facilities and employees and threats from terrorist acts, which could materially disrupt our business if carried out.
If we fail to successfully complete or manage acquisitions, divestitures, equity investments and other transactions, including our proposed acquisition of Aerojet Rocketdyne, or if acquired entities or equity investments fail to perform as expected, our financial results, business and future prospects could be harmed.
In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions, evaluate companies, and enter into agreements regarding possible acquisitions, joint ventures, other investments and divestitures. We seek to identify acquisition or investment opportunities that will expand or complement our existing products and services or customer base, at reasonable valuations. We often compete with other companies for the same opportunities. To be successful, we must conduct due diligence to identify valuation issues and potential loss contingencies; negotiate transaction terms; complete and close complex transactions; integrate acquired companies and employees; and realize anticipated operating synergies efficiently and effectively. Acquisition, divestiture, joint venture and investment transactions often require substantial management resources and have the potential to divert our attention from our existing business. Unidentified or identified but uncertain liabilities that are not covered by indemnification or other coverage could adversely affect our future financial results. This is particularly the case in respect of successor liability under procurement laws and regulations such as the False Claims Act or the Truthful Cost or Pricing Data Act (formerly the Truth in Negotiations Act), anti-corruption, environmental, tax, import-export and technology transfer laws, which provide for civil and criminal penalties and the potential for debarment. We also may incur unanticipated costs or expenses, including post-closing asset impairment charges, expenses associated with eliminating duplicate facilities, employee retention, transaction-related or other litigation, and other liabilities. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
On December 20, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc. (Aerojet Rocketdyne). Closing of the transaction is subject, among other things, to expiration of any waiting period under the Hart Scott Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended (which now has expired), and any other period in which the parties have agreed not to close. On January 11, 2022, the parties provided an updated notice of their intended closing date under their timing agreement with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), whereby the parties agreed that they would not close the transaction before January 27, 2022, to enable the parties to discuss the scope and nature of the merchant supply and firewall commitments previously offered to the FTC by Lockheed Martin. We have been advised by the FTC that its concerns regarding the transaction cannot be addressed adequately by the terms of a consent order. We believe it is highly likely that the FTC will vote to sue to block the transaction and expect they will make a decision before January 27, 2022. If the FTC sues to block the transaction, we could elect to defend the lawsuit within 30 days or terminate the merger agreement. If the FTC does not file a lawsuit to block the transaction before January 27, 2022, the parties could proceed to close the transaction, but there is no assurance that the FTC would not file a lawsuit challenging the transaction after the closing since the parties have not reached agreement on the terms of a consent order. A post-closing lawsuit could include taking action to seek a declaration that the acquisition is unlawful and to seek divestiture of all or part of the Aerojet Rocketdyne business or to enjoin integration of the Aerojet Rocketdyne business with Lockheed Martin’s business. There is no assurance that we would be successful in any litigation with the FTC, whether before or after closing.
We may be unable to close or achieve the expected benefits of this transaction as a result of, among other things, the failure to obtain, delays in obtaining, or adverse conditions contained in any required regulatory or other approvals for consummation of the acquisition, including any FTC lawsuit to block the transaction; Aerojet Rocketdyne’s or our business being disrupted due to transaction-related uncertainty resulting from the FTC review process or any FTC lawsuit, both before or after closing; the failure or inability due to litigation, including any FTC lawsuit, or consent orders to successfully and timely acquire and integrate Aerojet Rocketdyne and realize the expected synergies, cost savings and other benefits of the acquisition; the potential for Aerojet Rocketdyne or us to terminate the merger agreement pursuant to its terms, including if the transaction has not closed on or before March 21, 2022; competitive responses to the proposed acquisition; unexpected liabilities, costs, charges or expenses resulting from the acquisition, including the costs associated with the FTC review process, any consent order or any FTC lawsuit; and potential adverse reactions or changes to business relationships as a result of any FTC lawsuit, consent order or the completion of the acquisition. If the transaction is completed, any debt issuance to finance the acquisition will increase our interest expense and financial leverage and could negatively impact our credit ratings. The expected cash cost of the acquisition also assumes the assumption of net cash on the balance sheet of Aerojet Rocketdyne at closing after payment of outstanding debt, which is subject to uncertainty.
Joint ventures and other noncontrolling investments operate under shared control with other parties. These investments typically face many of the same risks and uncertainties as we do, but may expose us to additional risks not present if we retained full control. A joint venture partner may have economic or other business interests that are inconsistent with ours and we may be unable to prevent strategic decisions that may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of
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operations. We also could be adversely affected by, or liable for, actions taken by these joint ventures that we do not control, including violations of anti-corruption, import and export, taxation and anti-boycott laws.
Depending on our rights and percentage of ownership, we may consolidate the financial results of such entities or account for our interests under the equity method. Under the equity method of accounting for nonconsolidated ventures and investments, we recognize our share of the operating profit or loss of these joint ventures in our results of operations. Our operating results are affected by the conduct and performance of businesses over which we do not exercise control and, as a result, we may not be successful in achieving the growth or other intended benefits of strategic investments. Our equity investments had the greatest impact on our Space business segment where approximately 6% of its 2021 operating profit was derived from its share of earnings from equity method investees, primarily that in United Launch Alliance (ULA).
Through our Lockheed Martin Ventures Fund, we make investments in early-stage companies that we believe are advancing or developing new technologies applicable to our core businesses and new initiatives important to Lockheed Martin. These investments may be in the forms of common or preferred stock, warrants, convertible debt securities or investments in funds and are generally illiquid at the time of investment, which limits our ability to exit an investment or realize an investment absent a liquidity event. Typically, we hold a non-controlling interest and, therefore, are unable to influence strategic decisions by these companies and may have limited visibility into their activities, which may result in our not realizing the intended benefits of the investments. For fund investments, we have even less influence and visibility as a non-controlling investor in a fund that invests in other companies. We may recognize significant gains or losses attributable to adjustments of the investments’ fair value, including impairments up to and including the full value of the investment, which can be affected by the success of the companies, market volatility and changes in valuations of our investment holdings.
Risks Related to Significant Contingencies, Uncertainties and Estimates, including Pension, Taxes, Environmental and Litigation Costs
Pension funding and costs are dependent on several economic assumptions which if changed may cause our future earnings and cash flow to fluctuate significantly as well as affect the affordability of our products and services.
Many of our employees and retirees participate in defined benefit pension plans, retiree medical and life insurance plans, and other postemployment plans (collectively, postretirement benefit plans). The impact of these plans on our earnings may be volatile in that the amount of expense we record for our postretirement benefit plans may materially change from year to year because the calculations are sensitive to changes in several key economic assumptions including interest rates and rates of return on plan assets, other actuarial assumptions including participant longevity (also known as mortality) and employee turnover, as well as the timing of cash funding. Changes in these factors, including actual returns on plan assets, may also affect our plan funding, cash flow and stockholders’ equity.
With regard to cash flow, we have made substantial cash contributions to our plans as required by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), as amended, and expect to make future contributions as required or when deemed prudent. We generally can recover a significant portion of these contributions related to our plans as allowable costs on our U.S. Government contracts, including FMS. However, there is a lag between the time when we contribute cash to our plans under pension funding rules and when we recover pension costs under U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), which can affect the timing of our cash flows.
In recent years, we have taken actions to mitigate the risk related to our defined benefit pension plans through pension risk transfer transactions whereby we purchase group annuity contracts (GACs) from insurance companies using assets from the pension trust and expect to continue to evaluate such transactions in the future. Although under the majority of the GACs we have purchased we are relieved of all responsibility for the associated pension obligations, we have purchased and may in the future purchase GACs whereby the insurance company reimburses the pension plans but we remain responsible for paying benefits under the plans to covered retirees and beneficiaries and are subject to the risk that the insurance company will default on its obligations to reimburse the pension trusts. While we believe pension risk transfer transactions are beneficial, future transactions, depending on their size, could result in us making additional contributions to the pension trust and/or require us to recognize noncash settlement charges in earnings in the applicable reporting period.
For more information on how these factors could impact earnings, financial position, cash flow and stockholders’ equity, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Postretirement Benefit Plans” in the MD&A and “Note 12 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Our estimates and projections may prove to be inaccurate and certain of our assets may be at risk of future impairment.
The accounting for some of our most significant activities is based on judgments and estimates, which are complex and subject to many variables. For example, accounting for sales using the percentage-of-completion method requires that we assess risks and make assumptions regarding future schedule, cost, technical and performance issues for thousands of contracts, many of which are long-term in nature. Additionally, we initially allocate the purchase price of acquired businesses based on a preliminary assessment of the fair value of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. For significant acquisitions we may use a one-year measurement period to analyze and assess a number of factors used in establishing the asset and liability fair values as of the acquisition date which could result in adjustments to asset and liability balances.
We have $10.8 billion of goodwill assets recorded on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 from previous acquisitions, which represents approximately 21% of our total assets. These goodwill assets are subject to annual impairment testing and more frequent testing upon the occurrence of certain events or significant changes in circumstances that indicate goodwill may be impaired. If we experience changes or factors arise that negatively affect the expected cash flows of a reporting unit, we may be required to write off all or a portion of the reporting unit’s related goodwill assets. The carrying value and fair value of our Sikorsky reporting unit are closely aligned. Therefore, any business deterioration, contract cancellations or terminations, or market pressures could cause our sales, earnings and cash flows to decline below current projections and could cause goodwill and intangible assets to be impaired. Additionally, Sikorsky may not perform as expected, or demand for its products may be adversely affected by global economic conditions, including oil and gas trends that are outside of our control.
Actual financial results could differ from our judgments and estimates. See “Critical Accounting Policies” in the MD&A and Results of Operations and “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a complete discussion of our significant accounting policies and use of estimates.
Changes in tax laws and regulations or exposure to additional tax liabilities could adversely affect our financial results.
Changes in U.S. (federal or state) or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including those with retroactive effect, could result in increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows. For example, beginning in 2022, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminates the option to deduct research and development expenditures immediately in the year incurred and requires taxpayers to amortize such expenditures over five years. If these provisions are not deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress with retroactive effect to January 1, 2022, they will materially decrease our cash from operations beginning in 2022. We currently estimate an approximately $500 million impact to 2022 cash from operations based on the provisions currently in effect. The actual impact on 2022 cash from operations will depend on if and when these provisions are deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress, including if retroactively, and the amount of research and development expenses paid or incurred in 2022 among other factors. In addition, recent proposals to increase the U.S. corporate income tax rate would require us to increase our net deferred tax assets upon enactment of new tax legislation, with a corresponding material, one-time, noncash decrease in income tax expense, but our income tax expense and payments would likely be materially increased in subsequent years. See "Consolidated Results of Operations - Income Tax Expense" in the MD&A for additional detail on the potential effect of tax rate increases. In addition to future changes in tax laws, the amount of net deferred tax assets will change periodically based on several factors, including the measurement of our postretirement benefit plan obligations, actual cash contributions to our postretirement benefit plans, and future changes in tax laws. In addition, we are regularly under audit or examination by tax authorities, including foreign tax authorities. The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could similarly result in unanticipated increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows.
Our business involves significant risks and uncertainties that may not be covered by indemnity or insurance.
A significant portion of our business relates to designing, developing and manufacturing advanced defense and technology products and systems. New technologies may be untested or unproven. Failure of some of these products and services could result in extensive loss of life or property damage. Accordingly, we may incur liabilities that are unique to our products and services. In some but not all circumstances, we may be entitled to certain legal protections or indemnifications from our customers, either through U.S. Government indemnifications under Public Law 85-804, 10 U.S.C. 2354, the Commercial Space Launch Act or the Price-Anderson Act, qualification of our products and services by the Department of Homeland Security under the SAFETY Act provisions of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, contractual provisions or otherwise. We seek to obtain insurance coverage from established and reputable insurance carriers to cover these risks and liabilities. The amount of insurance coverage that we maintain may not be adequate to cover all claims or liabilities. Insurance coverage is subject to the terms and conditions of the insurance contract and is further subject to any sublimits, exclusions, restrictions, or defenses. Existing coverage is renewed annually and may be canceled while we remain exposed to the risk and it is not possible to obtain insurance to protect against all operational risks, natural hazards and liabilities. For example, we are limited in the amount of insurance we can obtain to cover unusually hazardous risks or certain natural hazards such as earthquakes, fires or extreme
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weather conditions, some of which may be exacerbated by climate-change. We have significant operations in geographic areas prone to these risks, such as in California, Florida and Texas and certain of our properties have suffered damage from natural disasters in the past and may again in the future. We could incur significant costs to improve the climate resiliency of our infrastructure and supply chain and otherwise prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the effects of climate change. In addition, under certain classified fixed price development and production contracts we are unable to insure risk of loss to government property because of the classified nature of the contracts and the inability to disclose classified information necessary for underwriting and claims to commercial insurers. Even if insurance coverage is available, we may not be able to obtain it in an amount, at a price or on terms acceptable to us. Some insurance providers may be unable or unwilling to provide us insurance given the nature of our business or products. Additionally, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage terms or the insolvency of one or more of our insurance carriers may significantly affect the amount or timing of our cash flows.
Substantial costs resulting from an accident; failure of or defect in our products or services; natural catastrophe or other incident; or liability arising from our products and services in excess of any legal protection, indemnity, and our insurance coverage (or for which indemnity or insurance is not available or not obtained) could adversely impact our financial condition, cash flows, and operating results. Any accident, failure of, or defect in our products or services, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively affect our reputation among our customers and the public and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively. It also could affect the cost and availability of adequate insurance in the future.
Environmental costs and regulation, including in response to climate change, could adversely affect our future earnings as well as the affordability of our products and services.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign requirements for the protection of the environment, including those for discharge of hazardous materials and remediation of contaminated sites. Due in part to the complexity and pervasiveness of these requirements, we are a party to or have property subject to various lawsuits, proceedings, and remediation obligations. These types of matters could result in fines, penalties, cost reimbursements or contributions, compensatory or treble damages or non-monetary sanctions or relief. We have incurred and will continue to incur liabilities for environmental remediation at some of our current and former facilities and at third-party-owned sites where we have been designated a potentially responsible party as a result of our historical activities and those of our predecessor companies. Environmental remediation activities usually span many years, and the extent of financial exposure can be difficult to estimate. Among the variables management must assess in evaluating costs associated with these cases and remediation sites are the status of site assessment, extent of the contamination, impacts on natural resources, changing cost estimates, evolution of technologies used to remediate the site, continually evolving environmental standards, availability of insurance coverage and indemnification under existing agreements and cost allowability issues, including varying efforts by the U.S. Government to limit allowability of our costs in resolving liability at third-party-owned sites. Our environmental remediation related liabilities could also significantly increase because of acquisitions, the regulation of new substances, stricter remediation standards for existing regulated substances, changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and regulations, or the discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination or new contaminants. For information regarding these matters, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for environmental remediation to the extent probable and estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in the MD&A and “Note 15 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
We manage and have managed various U.S. Government-owned facilities on behalf of the U.S. Government. At such facilities, environmental compliance and remediation costs historically have been the responsibility of the U.S. Government. We have relied, and continue to rely with respect to past practices, on U.S. Government funding to pay such costs, notwithstanding efforts by some U.S. Government representatives to limit this responsibility. Although the U.S. Government remains responsible for capital and operating costs associated with environmental compliance, responsibility for fines and penalties associated with environmental noncompliance typically is borne by either the U.S. Government or the contractor, depending on the contract and the relevant facts. Some environmental laws include criminal provisions. A conviction under environmental law could affect our ability to be awarded future or perform under existing U.S. Government contracts.
The increasing global regulatory focus on greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions and their potential impacts relating to climate change could result in laws, regulations or policies that significantly increase our direct and indirect operational and compliance burdens, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. These laws, regulations or policies could take many forms, including carbon taxes, cap and trade regimes, increased efficiency standards, GHG reduction commitments, incentives or mandates for particular types of energy or changes in procurement laws. Changes in government procurement laws that mandate or take into account climate change considerations, such as the contractor’s GHG emissions, lower emission products or other climate risks, in evaluating bids could result in costly changes to our operations or affect our competitiveness on future bids. In addition to incurring direct costs to implement any climate-change related laws, regulations or policies, we may see indirect costs rise, such as increased energy or material costs, as a result of policies affecting other
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sectors of the economy. Although most of these increased costs likely would be recoverable through pricing, to the extent that the increase in our costs as a result of these policies are greater than our competitors we may be less competitive on future bids or the total increased cost in our industry’s products and services could result in lower demand from our customers. We monitor developments in climate change-related laws, regulations and policies for their potential effect on us, however, we currently are not able to accurately predict the materiality of any potential costs associated with such developments. In addition, climate change-related litigation and investigations have increased in recent years and any claims or investigations against us could be costly to defend and our business could be adversely affected by the outcome.
We are involved in a number of legal proceedings. We cannot predict the outcome of litigation and other contingencies with certainty.
Our business may be adversely affected by the outcome of legal proceedings and other contingencies that cannot be predicted with certainty. As required by U.S. GAAP, we estimate loss contingencies and establish reserves based on our assessment of contingencies where liability is deemed probable and reasonably estimable in light of the facts and circumstances known to us at a particular point in time. Subsequent developments in legal proceedings may affect our assessment and estimates of the loss contingency recorded as a liability or as a reserve against assets in our financial statements. For a description of our current legal proceedings, see Item 3 - Legal Proceedings along with “Note 15 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
There can be no assurance that we will continue to increase our dividend or to repurchase shares of our common stock.
Cash dividend payments and share repurchases are subject to limitations under applicable laws and the discretion of our Board of Directors and are determined after considering then-existing conditions, including earnings, other operating results and capital requirements and cash deployment alternatives. Our payment of dividends and share repurchases could vary from historical practices or our stated expectations. Decreases in asset values or increases in liabilities, including liabilities associated with employee benefit plans and assets and liabilities associated with taxes, can reduce net earnings and stockholders’ equity. A deficit in stockholders’ equity could limit our ability to pay dividends and make share repurchases under Maryland state law in the future. In addition, the timing and amount of share repurchases under Board of Directors approved share repurchase plans may differ from stated expectations and is within the discretion of management and will depend on many factors, including our ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations in the future or to borrow money from available financing sources, our results of operations, capital requirements and applicable law.

ITEM 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 2.    Properties
At December 31, 2021, we owned or leased building space (including offices, manufacturing plants, warehouses, service centers, laboratories and other facilities) at approximately 362 locations primarily in the U.S. Additionally, we manage or occupy approximately 10 government-owned facilities under lease and other arrangements. At December 31, 2021, we had significant operations in the following locations:
Aeronautics - Palmdale, California; Marietta, Georgia; Greenville, South Carolina; and Fort Worth, Texas.
Missiles and Fire Control - Camden, Arkansas; Ocala and Orlando, Florida; Lexington, Kentucky; and Grand Prairie, Texas.
Rotary and Mission Systems - Shelton and Stratford, Connecticut; Orlando, Florida; Moorestown/Mt. Laurel, New Jersey; Owego and Syracuse, New York; Manassas, Virginia; and Mielec, Poland.
Space - Huntsville, Alabama; Sunnyvale, California; Denver, Colorado; Cape Canaveral, Florida; and Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
Corporate activities - Bethesda, Maryland.
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The following is a summary of our square feet of floor space owned, leased, or utilized by business segment at December 31, 2021 (in millions):
OwnedLeasedGovernment-
Owned
Total
Aeronautics5.5 3.0 14.7 23.2 
Missiles and Fire Control7.7 2.8 2.2 12.7 
Rotary and Mission Systems11.3 5.4 0.2 16.9 
Space 9.2 2.9 0.9 13.0 
Corporate activities2.4 1.0 — 3.4 
Total36.1 15.1 18.0 69.2 
Our government owned floor space decreased by 4.5 million square feet due to the renationalization of AWE.
We believe our facilities are in good condition and adequate for their current use. We may improve, replace or reduce facilities as considered appropriate to meet the needs of our operations.
ITEM  3.    Legal Proceedings
We are a party to litigation and other proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, including matters arising under provisions relating to the protection of the environment, and are subject to contingencies related to certain businesses we previously owned. These types of matters could result in fines, penalties, cost reimbursements or contributions, compensatory or treble damages or non-monetary sanctions or relief. We believe the probability is remote that the outcome of each of these matters will have a material adverse effect on the corporation as a whole, notwithstanding that the unfavorable resolution of any matter may have a material effect on our net earnings and cash flows in any particular interim reporting period. We cannot predict the outcome of legal or other proceedings with certainty.
We are subject to federal, state, local and foreign requirements for the protection of the environment, including those for discharge of hazardous materials and remediation of contaminated sites. Due in part to the complexity and pervasiveness of these requirements, we are a party to or have property subject to various lawsuits, proceedings and remediation obligations. The extent of our financial exposure cannot in all cases be reasonably estimated at this time.
For information regarding the matters discussed above, including current estimates of the amounts that we believe are required for remediation or clean-up to the extent estimable, see “Critical Accounting Policies - Environmental Matters” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and “Note 15 – Legal Proceedings, Commitments and Contingencies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to various audits and investigations by the U.S. Government to determine whether our operations are being conducted in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements. U.S. Government investigations of us, whether relating to government contracts or conducted for other reasons, could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities, including repayments, fines or penalties being imposed upon us, suspension, proposed debarment, debarment from eligibility for future U.S. Government contracting, or suspension of export privileges. Suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on us because of our dependence on contracts with the U.S. Government. U.S. Government investigations often take years to complete and many result in no adverse action against us. We also provide products and services to customers outside of the U.S., which are subject to U.S. and foreign laws and regulations and foreign procurement policies and practices. Our compliance with local regulations or applicable U.S. Government regulations also may be audited or investigated.

ITEM  4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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ITEM  4(a).    Information about our Executive Officers
Our executive officers as of January 25, 2022 are listed below, with their ages on that date, positions and offices currently held, and principal occupation and business experience during at least the last five years. There were no family relationships among any of our executive officers and directors. All officers serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
Brian P. Colan (age 61), Vice President, Controller, and Chief Accounting Officer
Mr. Colan has served as Vice President, Controller, and Chief Accounting Officer since August 2014.
Scott T. Greene (age 63), Executive Vice President - Missiles and Fire Control
Mr. Greene has served as Executive Vice President of Missiles and Fire Control (MFC) since August 2019. He previously served as Vice President, Tactical and Strike Missiles in our MFC segment from August 2017 to August 2019; and Vice President, Precision Fires and Combat Maneuver Systems in our MFC segment from January 2016 to August 2017.
Stephanie C. Hill (age 57), Executive Vice President - Rotary and Mission Systems
Ms. Hill has served as Executive Vice President of Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) since June 2020. She previously served as Senior Vice President, Enterprise Business Transformation from June 2019 to June 2020. Prior to that, she was Deputy Executive Vice President of RMS from October 2018 to June 2019; Senior Vice President for Corporate Strategy and Business Development from September 2017 to October 2018; and Vice President and General Manager of the former Cyber, Ships and Advanced Technologies line of business for RMS from June 2015 to September 2017.
Maryanne R. Lavan (age 62), Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Ms. Lavan has served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since September 2010.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. (age 58), Executive Vice President - Space
Mr. Lightfoot has served as Executive Vice President of Space since January 2022. He previously served as Vice President, Operations at our Space segment since June 2021. Prior to that, he served as Vice President, Strategy and Business Development of Space from May 2019 to June 2021. Prior to joining Lockheed Martin in 2019, Mr. Lightfoot served as President, LSINC Corporation, a provider of product development and engineering services, from May 2018 to May 2019. Prior to that he was Associate Administrator at the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), the agency’s highest-ranking civil service position, from March 2012 until April 2018.
John W. Mollard (age 64), Acting Chief Financial Officer, Vice President and Treasurer
Mr. Mollard has served as Acting Chief Financial Officer since August 2021 and Vice President and Treasurer since April 2016.
Frank A. St. John (age 55), Chief Operating Officer
Mr. St. John has served as Chief Operating Officer since June 2020. He previously served as Executive Vice President of RMS from August 2019 to June 2020. Prior to that, he served as Executive Vice President of MFC from January 2018 to August 2019; Executive Vice President and Deputy, Programs in our MFC segment from June 2017 to January 2018; and Vice President, Orlando Operations and Tactical Missiles/Combat Maneuver Systems business in our MFC segment from 2011 to May 2017.
James D. Taiclet (age 61), Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
Mr. Taiclet has served as Chairman since March 2021 and President and Chief Executive Officer of Lockheed Martin since June 2020. He previously was chairman, president and chief executive officer of American Tower Corporation from February 2004 until March 2020 and executive chairman from March 2020 to May 2020.
Gregory M. Ulmer (age 57), Executive Vice President - Aeronautics
Mr. Ulmer has served as Executive Vice President, Aeronautics since February 2021. He served as Vice President and General Manager, F-35 Lightning II Program from March 2018 to January 2021. Prior to that he served as Vice President, F-35 Aircraft Production business unit from March 2016 to March 2018.
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PART II
 
ITEM  5.    Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
At January 19, 2022, we had 24,045 holders of record of our common stock, par value $1 per share. Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol LMT.
Stockholder Return Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total return on a cumulative basis through December 31, 2021 of $100 invested in Lockheed Martin common stock on December 31, 2016 to the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense Index.
https://cdn.kscope.io/1b5a981294d711f54c2474de8ffbb371-lmt-20211231_g1.jpg
The S&P Aerospace & Defense Index comprises General Dynamics Corporation, Howmet Aerospace Inc., Huntington Ingalls Industries, L3Harris Technologies, Inc., Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Raytheon Technologies Corporation, Textron Inc., The Boeing Company, and Transdigm Group Inc. The stockholder return performance indicated on the graph is not a guarantee of future performance.
This graph is not deemed to be “filed” with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), and should not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act.



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Purchases of Equity Securities
There were no sales of unregistered equity securities during the quarter ended December 31, 2021.
The following table provides information about our repurchases of our common stock that is registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the quarter ended December 31, 2021.
  Period (a)
Total
Number of
Shares
Purchased
Average
Price Paid
Per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (b)
   (in millions)
September 27, 2021 – October 31, 2021 (c)
3,886,168 $329.66 3,885,811 $3,923 
November 1, 2021 – November 28, 2021
— $— — $3,923 
November 29, 2021 – December 31, 2021
10,786 $333.81 — $3,923 
Total (c)(d)
3,896,954 $329.83 3,885,811  
(a)We close our books and records on the last Sunday of each month to align our financial closing with our business processes, except for the month of December, as our fiscal year ends on December 31. As a result, our fiscal months often differ from the calendar months. For example, November 29, 2021 was the first day of our December 2021 fiscal month.
(b)In October 2010, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program pursuant to which we are authorized to repurchase our common stock in privately negotiated transactions or in the open market at prices per share not exceeding the then-current market prices. From time to time, our Board of Directors authorizes increases to our share repurchase program. The total remaining authorization for future common share repurchases under our share repurchase program was $3.9 billion as of December 31, 2021. Under the program, management has discretion to determine the dollar amount of shares to be repurchased and the timing of any repurchases in compliance with applicable law and regulation. This includes purchases pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 plans, including accelerated share repurchases. The program does not have an expiration date.
(c)During the fourth quarter of 2021, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase (ASR) agreement to repurchase $2.0 billion of our common stock. Under the terms of the ASR agreement we entered into in October 2021, we paid $2.0 billion and received an initial delivery of 3,621,111 shares of our common stock. Upon final settlement of the ASR agreement in January 2022, we received an additional 2,183,284 shares of our common stock based on the average price paid per share of $344.57, calculated with reference to the volume-weighted average price (VWAP) of our common stock over the term of the agreement, less a negotiated discount. Average Price Paid Per Share in the table above does not include ASR shares.
(d)During the quarter ended December 31, 2021, the total number of shares purchased included 11,143 shares that were transferred to us by employees in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock units. These purchases were made pursuant to a separate authorization by our Board of Directors and are not included within the program.

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ITEM 6.    Selected Financial Data

(In millions, except per share data)20212020201920182017
Operating results
Net sales$67,044 $65,398 $59,812 $53,762 $49,960 
Operating profit (a)(b)
9,123 8,644 8,545 7,334 6,744 
Net earnings from continuing operations (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
6,315 6,888 6,230 5,046 1,890 
Net (loss) earnings from discontinued operations (55)— — 73 
Net earnings (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
6,315 6,833 6,230 5,046 1,963 
Earnings from continuing operations per common share
Basic (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
22.85 24.60 22.09 17.74 6.56 
Diluted (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
22.76 24.50 21.95 17.59 6.50 
Earnings (loss) earnings from discontinued operations per common share
Basic (0.20)— — 0.26 
Diluted (0.20)— — 0.25 
Earnings per common share
Basic (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
22.85 24.40 22.09 17.74 6.82 
Diluted (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(i)
22.76 24.30 21.95 17.59 6.75 
Cash dividends declared per common share$10.60 $9.80 $9.00 $8.20 $7.46 
Balance sheet
Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments$3,604 $3,160 $1,514 $772 $2,861 
Total current assets19,815 19,378 17,095 16,103 17,505 
Goodwill 10,813 10,806 10,604 10,769 10,807 
Total assets (h)
50,873 50,710 47,528 44,876 46,620 
Total current liabilities13,997 13,933 13,972 14,398 12,913 
Total debt, net 11,676 12,169 12,654 14,104 14,263 
Total liabilities (c)(h)
39,914 44,672 44,357 43,427 47,396 
Total equity (deficit) (c)(i)
10,959 6,038 3,171 1,449 (776)
Common shares in stockholders’ equity at year-end271 279 280 281 284 
Cash flow information
Net cash provided by operating activities (b)
$9,221 $8,183 $7,311 $3,138 $6,476 
Net cash used for investing activities(1,161)(2,010)(1,241)(1,075)(1,147)
Net cash used for financing activities(7,616)(4,527)(5,328)(4,152)(4,305)
Backlog$135,355 $147,131 $143,981 $130,468 $105,493 
(a)Our operating profit and net earnings from continuing operations and earnings per share from continuing operations in 2021 were affected by severance and restructuring charges of $36 million ($28 million, or $0.10 per share, after-tax) associated with plans to close and consolidate certain facilities and reduce total workforce within our RMS business segment; severance charges of $27 million ($21 million, or $0.08 per share, after-tax) in 2020; and severance and restructuring charges of $96 million ($76 million, or $0.26 per share, after-tax) in 2018.
(b)The impact of our postretirement benefit plans can cause our operating profit, net earnings, cash flows and certain amounts recorded on our consolidated balance sheets to fluctuate. Accordingly, our net earnings were affected by a net FAS/CAS pension adjustment of $668 million in 2021, $2.1 billion in 2020, $1.5 billion in 2019, $1.0 billion in 2018, and $876 million in 2017. We made no pension contributions in 2021, $1.0 billion in both 2020 and 2019, $5.0 billion in 2018, and $46 million in 2017. These contributions caused fluctuations in our operating cash flows and cash balance between each of those years. See “Critical Accounting Policies - Postretirement Benefit Plans” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for more information.
(c)Net earnings from continuing operations in 2021 include a noncash, non-operating pension settlement charge of $1.7 billion ($1.3 billion, or $4.72 per share, after-tax) related to the purchase of group annuity contracts to transfer $4.9 billion of gross pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company, which represents the accelerated recognition of actuarial losses that were included in the accumulated other comprehensive loss account within stockholders' equity.
(d)Net earnings from continuing operations in 2021 include unrealized gains of $265 million ($199 million, or $0.72 per share, after-tax) due to changes in the fair value of investments held in the Lockheed Martin Ventures Fund.
(e)For the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2018, operating profit includes noncash asset impairment charges of $128 million ($96 million, or $0.34 per share, after-tax) and $110 million ($83 million, or $0.29 per share, after-tax) related to our equity method investee,
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Advanced Military Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Center LLC (AMMROC). For the year ended December 31, 2017, operating profit includes a $64 million ($40 million, or $0.14 per share, after-tax) charge, which represents our portion of a noncash asset impairment charge recorded by AMMROC. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
(f)In 2019 and 2017, we recorded previously deferred noncash gains of $51 million ($38 million, or $0.13 per share, after-tax) and $198 million ($122 million, or $0.42 per share, after-tax) related to properties sold in 2015 as a result of completing our remaining obligations.
(g)Net earnings for the year ended December 31, 2019 include benefits of $127 million ($0.45 per share) for additional tax deductions for the prior year, primarily attributable to foreign derived intangible income treatment based on proposed tax regulations released on March 4, 2019 and a change in our tax accounting method. Net earnings for the year ended December 31, 2018 include benefits of $146 million ($0.51 per share) for additional tax deductions for the prior year, primarily attributable to true-ups to the net one-time charges related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017 and our change in tax accounting method (see “Note 10 – Income Taxes” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).
(h)Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Upon adoption, we recorded right-of-use operating lease assets of $1.0 billion and operating lease liabilities of $1.1 billion, approximately $855 million of which were classified as noncurrent. There was no impact to our consolidated statements of earnings or cash flows as a result of adopting this standard. Prior periods were not restated for the adoption of ASU 2016-02. See “Note 9 – Leases” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(i)In 2017, we recorded a net one-time tax charge of $2.0 billion ($6.77 per share), substantially all of which was noncash, primarily related to the estimated impact of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (see “Note 10 – Income Taxes” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements). This charge along with our annual re-measurement adjustment related to our postretirement benefit plans of $1.4 billion resulted in a deficit in our total equity as of December 31, 2017.


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ITEM 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition. The MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
The MD&A generally discusses 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020. Discussions of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results or Operations” in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 filed with the SEC on January 28, 2021.
Business Overview
We are a global security and aerospace company principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. We also provide a broad range of management, engineering, technical, scientific, logistics, system integration and cybersecurity services. We serve both U.S. and international customers with products and services that have defense, civil and commercial applications, with our principal customers being agencies of the U.S. Government. In 2021, 71% of our $67.0 billion in net sales were from the U.S. Government, either as a prime contractor or as a subcontractor (including 62% from the Department of Defense (DoD)), 28% were from international customers (including foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government) and 1% were from U.S. commercial and other customers. Our main areas of focus are in defense, space, intelligence, homeland security and information technology, including cybersecurity.
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, Missiles and Fire Control (MFC), Rotary and Mission Systems (RMS) and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of the products and services offered.
We operate in an environment characterized by both complexity in global security and continuing economic pressures in the U.S. and globally. A significant component of our strategy in this environment is to focus on program execution, improving the quality and predictability of the delivery of our products and services, and placing security capability quickly into the hands of our U.S. and international customers at affordable prices. Recognizing that our customers are resource constrained, we place considerable focus on affordability initiatives while endeavoring to develop and extend our portfolio domestically in a disciplined manner, with a focus on adjacent markets close to our core capabilities as well as growing our international sales. We invest substantially in our people to ensure we have the technical skills necessary to succeed, and we expect to continue to invest internally on innovative technologies that address rapidly evolving mission requirements for our customers. We will continue to invest in acquisitions, as appropriate, while deepening our connection to commercial industry through cooperative partnerships, joint ventures, and equity investments.
COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic continued to present business challenges in 2021. We experienced impacts in each of our business areas related to COVID-19, primarily in continued increased coronavirus-related costs, delays in supplier deliveries, travel restrictions, site access and quarantine restrictions, employee absences, remote work and adjusted work schedules. During the first half of 2021, we had initiated a plan to reintroduce employees that had been working remotely to the workplace, however, we paused the reintroduction as COVID-19 cases rose in the second half of 2021. Attendance for employees required to be onsite has fluctuated based on pandemic developments. We continued to take measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, including encouraging employees to be vaccinated. We also continued to work with our customers and suppliers to minimize disruptions, including using accelerated progress payments from the U.S. Government and cash on hand to accelerate $2.2 billion of payments to our suppliers as of December 31, 2021 that are due by their terms in future periods. We will continue to monitor risk driven by the pandemic and, based on our current assessment, we expect to continue to accelerate payments to our suppliers based on risk assessed need through the end of 2022. Consistent with our current acceleration approach, we will prioritize small and COVID-19 impacted businesses.
We are closely tracking developments regarding vaccine mandates. Currently, all personnel working at DoD facilities, including Lockheed Martin employees, must comply with DoD’s process to attest to vaccination status. Pursuant to the DoD mandate, this is required for physical access to DoD buildings and leased spaces in non-DoD buildings where official agency business is performed. Additionally, until it was enjoined by a federal court in December 2021, pursuant to Executive Order 14042, referred to as the federal contractor vaccine mandate, all U.S. based employees of Lockheed Martin and most of its suppliers, industry partners and contractors working directly or indirectly on covered government contracts, or working at a facility where those contracts are performed, administered, or otherwise supported, were to be fully vaccinated, or have an
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approved medical or religious accommodation by January 18, 2022. This included employees who telework. Although the federal contractor vaccine mandate has been enjoined, we continue to encourage all employees to be vaccinated, including booster shots. We had taken steps to comply with the federal contractor vaccine mandate across our workforce until it was enjoined. As of December 31, 2021, more than 96% of our U.S. employee population had been vaccinated or received an approved exception. If the mandate is reinstated, or new mandates implemented, it is uncertain to what extent compliance with any such vaccine mandates may result in adverse impacts such as workforce attrition for us or our suppliers or reduce morale or efficiency. If the adverse impact is significant for us or our suppliers, our operations and ability to execute on our contracts could be adversely affected.
The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our operations and financial performance in future periods, including our ability to execute our programs in the expected timeframe, remains uncertain and will depend on future pandemic-related developments, including the duration of the pandemic, potential subsequent waves of COVID-19 infection or potential new variants, the effectiveness and adoption of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics, supplier impacts and related government actions to prevent and manage disease spread, including the implementation of any federal, state, local or foreign vaccine mandates, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. The long-term impacts of COVID-19 on government budgets and other funding priorities, including international priorities, that impact demand for our products and services are also difficult to predict but could negatively affect our future results and performance.
2022 Financial Trends

We expect 2022 net sales to decrease by approximately 2% from 2021 levels. The projected decline is driven by declines at three of the four business areas (MFC, RMS, and Space). Specifically, these decreases are driven by the renationalization of the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Space, the 2021 delivery of a training system on an international pilot training program at RMS not projected to repeat in 2022, as well as a decrease in Special Operations Forces Global Logistics Support Services (SOF GLSS) volume at MFC due to withdrawal of U.S. forces from Afghanistan. Total business segment operating margin in 2022 is expected to be approximately 10.9% and cash from operations in 2022 is expected to be greater than or equal to $7.9 billion. Cash from operations assumes no pension contributions; and includes an estimated potential impact in 2022 of approximately $500 million from the provisions in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 that went into effect on January 1, 2022 eliminating the option to immediately deduct research and development expenditures in the period incurred and requiring companies to amortize such expenditures over five years. The actual impact on 2022 cash from operations will depend on if and when these provisions are deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress, including if retroactively, and the amount of research and development expenses paid or incurred in 2022 among other factors. See “Income Tax Expense” below and Item 1A. Risk Factors for additional information regarding potential impacts of changes in tax laws and regulations, including the treatment of research and development costs.
The outlook for 2022 also assumes continued support and funding of our programs, a U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21%, known impacts of COVID-19, and the continued acceleration of supplier payments, with a focus on small and at-risk businesses. No additional impacts to the company’s operations, supply chain, or financial results as a result of continued COVID-19 disruption have been incorporated into our outlook for 2022 as the company cannot predict how the pandemic will evolve or what impact it will continue to have. The ultimate impacts of COVID-19 on our financial results remain uncertain and there can be no assurance that our underlying assumptions are correct. Additionally, the company’s outlook for 2022 assumes that there will not be significant reductions in customer budgets, changes in funding priorities and that the U.S. Government will not operate under a continuing resolution for an extended period in which new contract and program starts are restricted. It also does not incorporate the pending acquisition of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc. Changes in circumstances may require us to revise our assumptions, which could materially change our current estimate of 2022 net sales, business segment operating margin, and cash flows.
We expect a total net FAS/CAS pension benefit of approximately $2.3 billion in 2022 based on a 2.875% discount rate (a 37.5 basis point increase from the end of 2020), an approximate 10.5% return on plan assets in 2021, and a 6.50% expected long-term rate of return on plan assets in future years, among other assumptions. We do not expect to make required contributions to our qualified defined benefit pension plans in 2022.
Portfolio Shaping Activities
We continuously strive to strengthen our portfolio of products and services to meet the current and future needs of our customers. We accomplish this in part by our independent research and development activities and through acquisition, divestiture and internal realignment activities.
We selectively pursue the acquisition of businesses and investments at attractive valuations that will expand or complement our current portfolio and allow access to new customers or technologies. We also may explore the divestiture of businesses that
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no longer meet our needs or strategy or that could perform better outside of our organization. In pursuing our business strategy, we routinely conduct discussions, evaluate targets and enter into agreements regarding possible acquisitions, divestitures, joint ventures and equity investments.
Renationalization of the Atomic Weapons Establishment Program
On June 30, 2021, the UK Ministry of Defence terminated the contract to operate the UK’s nuclear deterrent program and assumed control of the entity that manages the program (referred to as the renationalization of the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE program)). Accordingly, the AWE program’s ongoing operations, including the entity that manages the program, are no longer included in our financial results as of that date, however, during 2021, AWE generated sales of $885 million and operating profit of $18 million, which are included in Space’s financial results for the year ended December 31, 2021. During the year ended December 31, 2020, AWE generated sales of $1.4 billion and operating profit of $35 million, which are included in Space’s financial results for 2020.
Pending Acquisition of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc.
On December 20, 2020, we entered into an agreement to acquire Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc. (Aerojet Rocketdyne) for $51.00 per share, which is net of a $5.00 per share special cash dividend Aerojet Rocketdyne paid to its stockholders on March 24, 2021. At the time of announcement, this represented a post-dividend equity value of approximately $4.6 billion, on a fully diluted as-converted basis, and a transaction value of approximately $4.4 billion after the assumption of Aerojet Rocketdyne’s then-projected net cash. If the transaction is completed, we expect to finance the acquisition primarily through new debt issuances. The transaction was approved by Aerojet Rocketdyne’s stockholders on March 9, 2021. As part of the regulatory review process of the transaction, on September 24, 2021, we and Aerojet Rocketdyne each certified substantial compliance with the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) requests for additional information, known as a “second request.” On January 11, 2022, the parties provided an updated notice of their intended closing date under their timing agreement with the FTC, whereby the parties agreed that they would not close the transaction before January 27, 2022, to enable the parties to discuss the scope and nature of the merchant supply and firewall commitments previously offered to the FTC by Lockheed Martin. We have been advised by the FTC that its concerns regarding the transaction cannot be addressed adequately by the terms of a consent order. We believe it is highly likely that the FTC will vote to sue to block the transaction and expect they will make a decision before January 27, 2022. If the FTC sues to block the transaction, we could elect to defend the lawsuit within 30 days or terminate the merger agreement. If the FTC does not file a lawsuit to block the transaction before January 27, 2022, the parties could proceed to close the transaction, but there is no assurance that the FTC would not file a lawsuit challenging the transaction after the closing since the parties have not reached agreement on the terms of a consent order. Under the terms of the merger agreement, either party may terminate the transaction if it has not closed on or before March 21, 2022. A copy of the merger agreement between the companies can be found in Lockheed Martin’s Form 8-K filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 21, 2020. See Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of the risks related to the proposed transaction.
U.S. Government Funding
On May 28, 2021, the Administration submitted to Congress the President’s fiscal year (FY) 2022 budget request, which proposes $753 billion for total national defense spending including $715 billion for the DoD, a 1.6% increase above the FY 2021 enacted amounts for both total national defense and the DoD (a U.S. Government fiscal year starts on October 1 and ends on September 30). This is the first budget over the past decade that is not restricted by the discretionary spending caps under the Budget Control Act of 2011. The budget also proposes to end the use of Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO) as a separate fund to finance overseas operations.
On December 27, 2021, the President signed the FY 2022 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), the annual policy bill that establishes, continues, or modifies federal programs, and provides the prerequisite for the Congress to appropriate budget authority for defense programs. The FY 2022 NDAA authorizes approximately $25 billion more than the President requested in the FY 2022 budget request.
However, the U.S. Government has not yet enacted an annual budget for FY 2022. To avert a government shutdown, a series of continuing resolution funding measures have been enacted to finance all U.S. Government activities through February 18, 2022. Under the continuing resolution, partial-year funding at amounts consistent with appropriated levels for FY 2021 are available, subject to certain restrictions, but new spending initiatives are not authorized. Importantly, our key programs continue to be supported and funded despite the continuing resolution financing mechanism. However, during periods covered by continuing resolutions or in the event of a government shutdown, we may experience delays in procurement of products and services due to lack of funding, and those delays may affect our results of operations. In the coming months, Congress will need to approve or revise the President’s FY 2022 budget proposal through enactment of appropriations bills and other policy
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legislation, which would then require final approval from the President in order for the FY 2022 budget to become law and complete the budget process.
Additionally, on December 16, 2021, the President signed legislation increasing the federal debt limit by $2.5 trillion. The measure increases the debt limit to $31.4 trillion from the previous level of $28.9 trillion and is estimated to provide sufficient government borrowing capacity to last until early 2023.
International Business
A key component of our strategic plan is to grow our international sales. To accomplish this growth, we continue to focus on strengthening our relationships internationally through partnerships and joint technology efforts. Our international business is conducted either by foreign military sales (FMS) contracted through the U.S. Government or by direct commercial sales (DCS) to international customers. In 2021, approximately 69% of our sales to international customers were FMS and about 31% were DCS. See Item 1A - Risk Factors for a discussion of risks related to international sales.
In 2021, international customers accounted for 35% of Aeronautics’ net sales. There continues to be strong international interest in the F-35 program, which includes commitments from the U.S. Government and seven international partner countries and six international customers, as well as expressions of interest from other countries. The U.S. Government and the partner countries continue to work together on the design, testing, production, and sustainment of the F-35 program. Other areas of international expansion at our Aeronautics business segment include the F-16 and C-130J programs, which continue to draw interest from international customers for new aircraft.
In 2021, international customers accounted for 29% of MFC’s net sales. Our MFC business segment continues to generate significant international interest, most notably in the air and missile defense product line, which produces the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) systems. The PAC-3 family of missiles are the only combat proven Hit-to-Kill interceptors that defend against incoming threats, including tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircraft. Fourteen nations have chosen PAC-3 Cost Reduction Initiative (CRI) and PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) to provide missile defense capabilities. THAAD is an integrated system designed to protect against high altitude ballistic missile threats. Additionally, we continue to see international demand for our tactical and strike missile products, where we received orders for precision fires systems from Germany and Taiwan and for Long Range Anti-Ship Missiles (LRASM) from Australia.
In 2021, international customers accounted for 28% of RMS’ net sales. Our RMS business segment continues to experience international interest in the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis) for which we perform activities in the development, production, modernization, ship integration, test and lifetime support for ships of international customers such as Japan, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Australia. We have ongoing combat systems programs associated with different classes of surface combatant ships for customers in Canada, Chile, and New Zealand. Our Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC) program will provide surface combatant ships for international customers, such as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, designed to operate in shallow waters and the open ocean. In our training and logistics solutions portfolio, we have active programs and pursuits in the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Germany and France. We have active development, production, and sustainment support of the S-70 Black Hawk® and MH-60 Seahawk® helicopters to international customers, including India, Philippines, Australia, Republic of Korea, Thailand, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Greece. Additionally, in December 2021, the Israeli Ministry of Defense signed a Letter of Offer and Acceptance (LOA) to procure 12 CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopters. Commercial aircraft are sold to international customers to support search and rescue missions as well as VIP and offshore oil and gas transportation.
In 2021, international customers accounted for 8% of Space’s net sales. The majority of our Space business segment international sales in 2021 were from our majority share of AWE Management Limited (AWE), which operated the United Kingdom’s nuclear deterrent program until June 30, 2021. As previously announced, on June 30, 2021 the UK Ministry of Defence renationalized AWE and, accordingly, the AWE program’s ongoing operations are no longer included in our financial results beginning as of that date.
Status of the F-35 Program
The F-35 program primarily consists of production contracts, sustainment activities, and new development efforts. Production of the aircraft is expected to continue for many years given the U.S. Government’s current inventory objective of 2,456 aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Navy; commitments from our seven international partner countries and six international customers; as well as expressions of interest from other countries.
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During 2021, the F-35 program completed several milestones both domestically and internationally. The U.S. Government continued testing the aircraft, including ship trials, mission and weapons systems evaluations, and the F-35 fleet recently surpassed 470,000 flight hours. During the second half of 2021, the U.S. Government awarded the production of 16 F-35 Lot 15 aircraft in addition to the 967 aircraft previously awarded. Since program inception, we have delivered 753 production F-35 aircraft to U.S. and international customers, including 549 F-35A variants, 150 F-35B variants, and 54 F-35C variants, demonstrating the F-35 program’s continued progress and longevity.
In response to COVID-19 F-35 delays and in conjunction with the F-35 Joint Program Office (JPO), we tapered our production rate in 2020. In 2021, we continued to be impacted by COVID-19 but the production rate improved from its 2020 levels. In September 2021, the F-35 JPO and the Lockheed Martin industry team agreed on an F-35 production rebaseline that ensures predictability and stability in the production process while recovering the aircraft shortfall realized over the last year during the COVID-19 pandemic. With this agreement, we were scheduled to deliver 133-139 aircraft in 2021. However, we delivered 142 aircraft in 2021, exceeding our contractual obligation by three aircraft. We anticipate delivering 148-153 aircraft in 2022. In 2023 and beyond, we anticipate delivering 156 aircraft for the foreseeable future. We have 230 aircraft in backlog as of December 31, 2021 extending into 2023, including orders from our international partner countries.
Given the size and complexity of the F-35 program, we anticipate that there will be continual reviews related to aircraft performance, program schedule, cost, and requirements as part of the DoD, Congressional, and international countries’ oversight and budgeting processes. Current program challenges include supplier, Lockheed Martin and partner performance (including COVID-19 performance-related challenges), software development, the receipt of funding for contracts on a timely basis, execution of future flight tests and findings resulting from testing and operating the aircraft, the level of cost associated with life cycle operations, sustainment and potential contractual obligations, and the ability to continue to reduce the unit production costs and improve affordability.
Backlog
At December 31, 2021, our backlog was $135.4 billion compared with $147.1 billion at December 31, 2020. Backlog is converted into sales in future periods as work is performed or deliveries are made. We expect to recognize approximately 38% of our backlog over the next 12 months and approximately 60% over the next 24 months as revenue, with the remainder recognized thereafter.
Our backlog includes both funded (firm orders for our products and services for which funding has been both authorized and appropriated by the customer) and unfunded (firm orders for which funding has not been appropriated) amounts. We do not include unexercised options or potential orders under indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) agreements in our backlog. If any of our contracts with firm orders were to be terminated, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the unfilled orders of such contracts. Funded backlog was $88.5 billion at December 31, 2021, as compared to $102.3 billion at December 31, 2020. For backlog related to each of our business segments, see “Business Segment Results of Operations” in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
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Consolidated Results of Operations
Our operating cycle is primarily long term and involves many types of contracts for the design, development and manufacture of products and related activities with varying delivery schedules. Consequently, the results of operations of a particular year, or year-to-year comparisons of sales and profits, may not be indicative of future operating results. The following discussions of comparative results among years should be reviewed in this context. All per share amounts cited in these discussions are presented on a “per diluted share” basis, unless otherwise noted. Our consolidated results of operations were as follows (in millions, except per share data):
202120202019
Net sales$67,044 $65,398 $59,812 
Cost of sales(57,983)(56,744)(51,445)
Gross profit9,061 8,654 8,367 
Other income (expense), net62 (10)178 
Operating profit9,123 8,644 8,545 
Interest expense(569)(591)(653)
Non-service FAS pension (expense) income(1,292)219 (577)
Other non-operating income (expense), net288 (37)(74)
Earnings from continuing operations before income taxes7,550 8,235 7,241 
Income tax expense(1,235)(1,347)(1,011)
Net earnings from continuing operations6,315 6,888 6,230 
Net loss from discontinued operations (55)— 
Net earnings$6,315 $6,833 $6,230 
Diluted earnings (loss) per common share
Continuing operations$22.76 $24.50 $21.95 
Discontinued operations (0.20)— 
Total diluted earnings per common share$22.76 $24.30 $21.95 
Certain amounts reported in other income (expense), net, including our share of earnings or losses from equity method investees, are included in the operating profit of our business segments. Accordingly, such amounts are included in the discussion of our business segment results of operations.
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Net Sales
We generate sales from the delivery of products and services to our customers. Our consolidated net sales were as follows (in millions):
202120202019
Products$56,435 $54,928 $50,053 
% of total net sales84.2 %84.0 %83.7 %
Services10,609 10,470 9,759 
% of total net sales15.8 %16.0 %16.3 %
Total net sales$67,044 $65,398 $59,812 
Substantially all of our contracts are accounted for using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method. Under the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method, we record net sales on contracts over time based upon our progress towards completion on a particular contract, as well as our estimate of the profit to be earned at completion. The following discussion of material changes in our consolidated net sales should be read in tandem with the subsequent discussion of changes in our consolidated cost of sales and our business segment results of operations because changes in our sales are typically accompanied by a corresponding change in our cost of sales due to the nature of the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method.
Product Sales
Product sales increased $1.5 billion, or 3%, in 2021 as compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher product sales of approximately $735 million at RMS due to higher production volume on various Sikorsky helicopter programs and for training and logistics solutions (TLS) programs due to the delivery of an international pilot training system; $465 million at MFC due to higher volume on PAC-3, Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) and Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) programs; and $305 million at Aeronautics due to higher volume on classified contracts and F-16 production contracts, partially offset by lower volume on F-35 development contracts.
Service Sales
Service sales increased $139 million, or 1%, in 2021 as compared to 2020. The increase in service sales was primarily attributable to higher sales of approximately $180 million at Aeronautics due to higher sustainment volume on F-35, partially offset by lower sustainment volume on F-22.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales, for both products and services, consist of materials, labor, subcontracting costs and an allocation of indirect costs (overhead and general and administrative), as well as the costs to fulfill our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, required under certain contracts with international customers. For each of our contracts, we monitor the nature and amount of costs at the contract level, which form the basis for estimating our total costs to complete the contract. Our consolidated cost of sales were as follows (in millions):
202120202019
Cost of sales – products$(50,273)$(48,996)$(44,589)
% of product sales89.1 %89.2 %89.1 %
Cost of sales – services(9,463)(9,371)(8,731)
% of service sales89.2 %89.5 %89.5 %
Severance and restructuring charges (36)(27)— 
Other unallocated, net1,789 1,650 1,875 
Total cost of sales$(57,983)$(56,744)$(51,445)
The following discussion of material changes in our consolidated cost of sales for products and services should be read in tandem with the preceding discussion of changes in our consolidated net sales and our business segment results of operations. Except for potential impacts to our programs resulting from COVID-19, we have not identified any additional developing trends in cost of sales for products and services that would have a material impact on our future operations.
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Product Costs
Product costs increased approximately $1.3 billion, or 3%, in 2021 as compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher product costs of approximately $560 million at RMS due to higher production volume on various Sikorsky helicopter programs and for TLS programs due to the delivery of an international pilot training system; $435 million at Aeronautics due to higher volume on classified contracts and F-16 production contracts, partially offset by lower volume on F-35 development contracts; $345 million at MFC due to higher volume on PAC-3, LRASM and JASSM programs; partially offset by lower product costs of approximately $65 million at Space due to the renationalization of AWE, partially offset by higher volume on hypersonic development, Next Generation Interceptor (NGI) and Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (Next Gen OPIR) programs.
Service Costs
Service costs increased approximately $92 million, or 1%, in 2021 compared to 2020. The increase in service costs was primarily due to higher service costs of approximately $85 million at Aeronautics due to higher sustainment volume on F-35, partially offset by lower sustainment volume on F-22.
Severance and Restructuring Charges
During 2021, we recorded severance and restructuring charges of $36 million ($28 million, or $0.10 per share, after-tax) associated with plans to close and consolidate certain facilities and reduce total workforce within our RMS business segment. During 2020, we recorded severance charges totaling $27 million ($21 million, or $0.08 per share, after-tax) related to the planned elimination of certain positions primarily at our corporate functions.
Other Unallocated, Net
Other unallocated, net primarily includes the FAS/CAS operating adjustment (which represents the difference between CAS pension cost recorded in our business segments’ results of operations and the service cost component of FAS pension (expense) income), stock-based compensation expense and other corporate costs. These items are not allocated to the business segments and, therefore, are not allocated to cost of sales for products or services. Other unallocated, net reduced cost of sales by $1.8 billion in 2021, compared to $1.7 billion in 2020. Other unallocated, net during 2021 was higher primarily due to an increase in our FAS/CAS operating adjustment and fluctuations in costs associated with various corporate items, none of which were individually significant. See “Business Segment Results of Operations” and “Critical Accounting Policies - Postretirement Benefit Plans” discussion below for more information on our pension cost.
Other Income (Expense), Net
Other income (expense), net generally includes earnings generated by equity method investees. Other income, net in 2021 was $62 million, compared to other expense, net of $10 million in 2020. Other income, net in 2021 included lower earnings generated by equity method investments; however, other expense, net in 2020 included a noncash impairment charge of $128 million ($96 million, or $0.34 per share, after-tax) related to our previous investment in Advanced Military Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Center (AMMROC), which was sold in 2020. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Interest Expense
Interest expense in 2021 was $569 million, compared to $591 million in 2020. The decrease in interest expense in 2021 resulted primarily from our scheduled repayment of debt in October 2020 and September 2021 of $500 million each. See “Capital Structure, Resources and Other” included within “Liquidity and Cash Flows” discussion below and “Note 11 – Debt” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for a discussion of our debt.
Non-Service FAS Pension (Expense) Income
Non-service FAS pension expense was $1.3 billion in 2021, compared to income of $219 million in 2020. Non-service FAS pension expense in 2021 includes a noncash pension settlement charge of $1.7 billion ($1.3 billion, or $4.72 per share, after-tax), related to the transfer of $4.9 billion of our gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company. See “Note 12 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
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Other Non-operating Income (Expense), Net

Other non-operating income (expense), net primarily includes gains or losses related to changes in the fair value of strategic investments in early stage companies made by our Lockheed Martin Ventures Fund. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information. Other non-operating income, net in 2021 was $288 million, compared to other non-operating expense, net of $37 million in 2020. The increase in 2021 was primarily due to increases in the fair value of investments held in our Lockheed Martin Ventures Fund.

Income Tax Expense

Our effective income tax rate from continuing operations was 16.4% for both 2021 and 2020. The rates for both 2021 and 2020 benefited from tax deductions for foreign derived intangible income, the research and development tax credit, dividends paid to the company's defined contribution plans with an employee stock ownership plan feature and tax deductions for employee equity awards.
Changes in U.S. (federal or state) or foreign tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including those with retroactive effect, including the amortization for research or experimental expenditures, could significantly impact our provision for income taxes, the amount of taxes payable, our deferred tax asset and liability balances, and stockholders’ equity. Recent proposals to increase the U.S. corporate income tax rate would require us to increase our net deferred tax assets upon enactment of new tax legislation, with a corresponding material, one-time, noncash decrease in income tax expense, but our income tax expense and payments would likely be materially increased in subsequent years. Our net deferred tax assets were $2.3 billion and $3.5 billion at December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2020, based on a 21% federal statutory income tax rate, and primarily relate to our postretirement benefit plans. In addition to future changes in tax laws, the amount of net deferred tax assets will change periodically based on several factors, including the measurement of our postretirement benefit plan obligations and actual cash contributions to our postretirement benefit plans.
Beginning in 2022, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 eliminates the option to deduct research and development expenditures immediately in the year incurred and requires taxpayers to amortize such expenditures over five years. While it is possible that Congress may defer, modify, or repeal this provision, potentially with retroactive effect, and we continue to have ongoing discussions with members of Congress, both on our own and with other industries through coalitions, we have no assurance that this provision will be deferred, modified, or repealed. Furthermore, in anticipation of the new provision taking effect, we have analyzed the provision and worked with our advisors to evaluate its application to our business. If this provision is not deferred, modified, or repealed with retroactive effect to January 1, 2022, we estimate it will decrease our expected cash from operations in 2022 by approximately $500 million and increase our net deferred tax assets by a similar amount. The actual impact on 2022 cash from operations will depend on if and when this provision is deferred, modified, or repealed by Congress, including if retroactively, and the amount of research and development expenses paid or incurred in 2022 among other factors. While the largest impact will be to 2022 cash from operations, the impact would continue over the five year amortization period, but would decrease over the period and be immaterial in year six.
We are regularly under audit or examination by tax authorities, including foreign tax authorities (including in, amongst others, Australia, Canada, India, Italy, Japan, Poland, and the United Kingdom). The final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could similarly result in unanticipated increases in our tax expense and affect profitability and cash flows.
Net Earnings from Continuing Operations
We reported net earnings from continuing operations of $6.3 billion ($22.76 per share) in 2021 and $6.9 billion ($24.50 per share) in 2020. Both net earnings and earnings per share in 2021 were affected by the factors mentioned above, including the noncash pension settlement charge of $1.7 billion ($1.3 billion, or $4.72 per share, after-tax) related to the transfer of $4.9 billion of gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company. Additionally, both net earnings and earnings per share in 2021 were affected by the $225 million ($169 million, or $0.61 per share, after-tax) loss for performance issues experienced on a classified program at our Aeronautics business segment. Earnings per share also benefited from a net decrease of approximately 3.8 million weighted average common shares outstanding in 2021, compared to 2020. Weighted average common shares include share repurchases, partially offset by share issuance under our stock-based awards and certain defined contribution plans.
Net Loss from Discontinued Operations
In 2020, we recognized a $55 million ($0.20 per share) noncash charge resulting from the resolution of certain tax matters related to the former Information Systems & Global Solutions business divested in 2016.
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Business Segment Results of Operations
We operate in four business segments: Aeronautics, MFC, RMS and Space. We organize our business segments based on the nature of products and services offered.
Net sales and operating profit of our business segments exclude intersegment sales, cost of sales, and profit as these activities are eliminated in consolidation. Business segment operating profit includes our share of earnings or losses from equity method investees as the operating activities of the equity method investees are closely aligned with the operations of our business segments. United Launch Alliance (ULA), results of which are included in our Space business segment, is our largest equity method investee.
Business segment operating profit also excludes the FAS/CAS pension operating adjustment, a portion of corporate costs not considered allowable or allocable to contracts with the U.S. Government under the applicable U.S. Government cost accounting standards (CAS) or federal acquisition regulations (FAR), and other items not considered part of management’s evaluation of segment operating performance such as a portion of management and administration costs, legal fees and settlements, environmental costs, stock-based compensation expense, retiree benefits, significant severance actions, significant asset impairments, gains or losses from divestitures, and other miscellaneous corporate activities.
Excluded items are included in the reconciling item “Unallocated items” between operating profit from our business segments and our consolidated operating profit. See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” for a discussion related to certain factors that may impact the comparability of net sales and operating profit of our business segments.
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Summary operating results for each of our business segments were as follows (in millions):
202120202019
Net sales
Aeronautics$26,748 $26,266 $23,693 
Missiles and Fire Control11,693 11,257 10,131 
Rotary and Mission Systems16,789 15,995 15,128 
Space11,814 11,880 10,860 
Total net sales$67,044 $65,398 $59,812 
Operating profit
Aeronautics$2,799 $2,843 $2,521 
Missiles and Fire Control1,648 1,545 1,441 
Rotary and Mission Systems1,798 1,615 1,421 
Space1,134 1,149 1,191 
Total business segment operating profit7,379 7,152 6,574 
Unallocated items
     FAS/CAS operating adjustment 1,960 1,876 2,049 
Stock-based compensation(227)(221)(189)
     Severance and restructuring charges (a)
(36)(27)— 
Other, net (b)
47 (136)111 
Total unallocated, net1,744 1,492 1,971 
Total consolidated operating profit$9,123 $8,644 $8,545 
(a)See “Consolidated Results of Operations – Severance and Restructuring Charges” discussion above for information on charges related to certain severance and restructuring actions across our organization.
(b)Other, net in 2020 includes a noncash impairment charge of $128 million recognized on our investment in the international equity method investee, AMMROC. Other, net in 2019 includes a previously deferred noncash gain of $51 million related to properties sold in 2015 as a result of completing our remaining obligations and a gain of $34 million for the sale of our Distributed Energy Solutions business. (See “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information).
Our business segments’ results of operations include pension expense only as calculated under U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), which we refer to as CAS pension cost. We recover CAS pension and other postretirement benefit plan cost through the pricing of our products and services on U.S. Government contracts and, therefore, recognize CAS pension cost in each of our business segment’s net sales and cost of sales. Our consolidated financial statements must present FAS pension and other postretirement benefit plan income calculated in accordance with FAS requirements under U.S. GAAP. The operating portion of the net FAS/CAS pension adjustment represents the difference between the service cost component of FAS pension (expense) income and total CAS pension cost. The non-service FAS pension (expense) income components are included in non-service FAS pension (expense) income in our consolidated statements of earnings. As a result, to the extent that CAS pension cost exceeds the service cost component of FAS pension (expense) income, we have a favorable FAS/CAS operating adjustment.









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Our total net FAS/CAS pension adjustments, including the service and non-service cost components of FAS pension (expense) income for our qualified defined benefit pension plans, were as follows (in millions):
202120202019
Total FAS (expense) income and CAS costs
FAS pension (expense) income $(1,398)$118 $(1,093)
Less: CAS pension cost2,066 1,977 2,565 
Net FAS/CAS pension adjustment$668 $2,095 $1,472 
Service and non-service cost reconciliation
FAS pension service cost(106)(101)(516)
Less: CAS pension cost2,066 1,977 2,565 
FAS/CAS operating adjustment1,960 1,876 2,049 
Non-service FAS pension (expense) income (1,292)219 (577)
Net FAS/CAS pension adjustment$668 $2,095 $1,472 
The decrease in the net FAS/CAS pension adjustment in 2021 was principally driven by a noncash, non-operating pension settlement charge of $1.7 billion ($1.3 billion, or $4.72 per share, after-tax) in connection with the transfer of $4.9 billion of our gross defined benefit pension obligations and related plan assets to an insurance company on August 3, 2021. See “Note 12 – Postretirement Benefit Plans” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
The following segment discussions also include information relating to backlog for each segment. Backlog was approximately $135.4 billion and $147.1 billion at December 31, 2021 and 2020. These amounts included both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding has been both authorized and appropriated by the customer) and unfunded backlog (firm orders for which funding has not yet been appropriated). Backlog does not include unexercised options or task orders to be issued under indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity contracts. Funded backlog was approximately $88.5 billion at December 31, 2021, as compared to $102.3 billion at December 31, 2020. If any of our contracts with firm orders were to be terminated, our backlog would be reduced by the expected value of the unfilled orders of such contracts.
Management evaluates performance on our contracts by focusing on net sales and operating profit and not by type or amount of operating expense. Consequently, our discussion of business segment performance focuses on net sales and operating profit, consistent with our approach for managing the business. This approach is consistent throughout the life cycle of our contracts, as management assesses the bidding of each contract by focusing on net sales and operating profit and monitors performance on our contracts in a similar manner through their completion.
We regularly provide customers with reports of our costs as the contract progresses. The cost information in the reports is accumulated in a manner specified by the requirements of each contract. For example, cost data provided to a customer for a product would typically align to the subcomponents of that product (such as a wing-box on an aircraft) and for services would align to the type of work being performed (such as aircraft sustainment). Our contracts generally allow for the recovery of costs in the pricing of our products and services. Most of our contracts are bid and negotiated with our customers under circumstances in which we are required to disclose our estimated total costs to provide the product or service. This approach for negotiating contracts with our U.S. Government customers generally allows for recovery of our actual costs plus a reasonable profit margin. We also may enter into long-term supply contracts for certain materials or components to coincide with the production schedule of certain products and to ensure their availability at known unit prices.
Many of our contracts span several years and include highly complex technical requirements. At the outset of a contract, we identify and monitor risks to the achievement of the technical, schedule and cost aspects of the contract and assess the effects of those risks on our estimates of total costs to complete the contract. The estimates consider the technical requirements (e.g., a newly-developed product versus a mature product), the schedule and associated tasks (e.g., the number and type of milestone events) and costs (e.g., material, labor, subcontractor, overhead and the estimated costs to fulfill our industrial cooperation agreements, sometimes referred to as offset agreements, required under certain contracts with international customers). The initial profit booking rate of each contract considers risks surrounding the ability to achieve the technical requirements, schedule and costs in the initial estimated total costs to complete the contract. Profit booking rates may increase during the performance of the contract if we successfully retire risks related to the technical, schedule and cost aspects of the contract, which decreases the estimated total costs to complete the contract. Conversely, our profit booking rates may decrease if the estimated total costs to complete the contract increase. All of the estimates are subject to change during the performance of the contract and may affect the profit booking rate.
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We have a number of programs that are designated as classified by the U.S. Government which cannot be specifically described. The operating results of these classified programs are included in our consolidated and business segment results and are subjected to the same oversight and internal controls as our other programs.
Our net sales are primarily derived from long-term contracts for products and services provided to the U.S. Government as well as FMS contracted through the U.S. Government. We recognize revenue as performance obligations are satisfied and the customer obtains control of the products and services. For performance obligations to deliver products with continuous transfer of control to the customer, revenue is recognized based on the extent of progress towards completion of the performance obligation, generally using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost measure of progress for our contracts because it best depicts the transfer of control to the customer as we incur costs on our contracts. For performance obligations in which control does not continuously transfer to the customer, we recognize revenue at the point in time in which each performance obligation is fully satisfied. Lower than expected supply chain activity negatively affected our net sales during 2021.
Changes in net sales and operating profit generally are expressed in terms of volume. Changes in volume refer to increases or decreases in sales or operating profit resulting from varying production activity levels, deliveries or service levels on individual contracts. Volume changes in segment operating profit are typically based on the current profit booking rate for a particular contract.
In addition, comparability of our segment sales, operating profit and operating margin may be impacted favorably or unfavorably by changes in profit booking rates on our contracts for which we recognize revenue over time using the percentage-of-completion cost-to-cost method to measure progress towards completion. Increases in the profit booking rates, typically referred to as risk retirements, usually relate to revisions in the estimated total costs to fulfill the performance obligations that reflect improved conditions on a particular contract. Conversely, conditions on a particular contract may deteriorate, resulting in an increase in the estimated total costs to fulfill the performance obligations and a reduction in the profit booking rate. Increases or decreases in profit booking rates are recognized in the period they are determined and reflect the inception-to-date effect of such changes. Segment operating profit and margin may also be impacted favorably or unfavorably by other items, which may or may not impact sales. Favorable items may include the positive resolution of contractual matters, cost recoveries on severance and restructuring charges, insurance recoveries and gains on sales of assets. Unfavorable items may include the adverse resolution of contractual matters; restructuring charges, except for significant severance actions, which are excluded from segment operating results; reserves for disputes; certain asset impairments; and losses on sales of certain assets.
Our consolidated net adjustments not related to volume, including net profit booking rate adjustments and other matters, increased segment operating profit by approximately $2.0 billion in 2021 and $1.8 billion in 2020. The consolidated net adjustments in 2021 compared to 2020 increased primarily due to increases in profit booking rate adjustments at Space, MFC and RMS offset by a decrease in Aeronautics. The consolidated net adjustments for 2021 are inclusive of approximately $900 million in unfavorable items, which include reserves for a classified program at Aeronautics, various programs at RMS and a commercial ground solutions program at Space. The consolidated net adjustments for 2020 are inclusive of approximately $745 million in unfavorable items, which include reserves for various programs at RMS, government satellite programs at Space and performance matters on a sensors and global sustainment international military program at MFC.
We periodically experience performance issues and record losses for certain programs. For further discussion on certain programs at Aeronautics and RMS, see “Note 1 – Organization and Significant Accounting Policies” included in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for more information.
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Aeronautics
Our Aeronautics business segment is engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration, sustainment, support and upgrade of advanced military aircraft, including combat and air mobility aircraft, unmanned air vehicles and related technologies. Aeronautics’ major programs include the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, C‑130 Hercules, F-16 Fighting Falcon and F-22 Raptor. Aeronautics’ operating results included the following (in millions):
202120202019
Net sales$26,748 $26,266 $23,693 
Operating profit2,799 2,843 2,521 
Operating margin10.5 %10.8 %10.6 %
Backlog at year-end$49,118 $56,551 $55,636 
Aeronautics’ net sales in 2021 increased $482 million, or 2%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher net sales of approximately $290 million on classified contracts due to higher volume; about $180 million for the F-16 program due to higher volume on production contracts that was partially offset by lower sustainment volume; approximately $75 million for the F-35 program primarily due to higher volume on production and sustainment contracts that was partially offset by lower volume on development contracts; and about $30 million for the C-130 program primarily due to higher volume on production contracts and higher risk retirements on sustainment activities. These increases were partially offset by a decrease of approximately $170 million for lower sustainment volume for the F-22 program.
Aeronautics’ operating profit in 2021 decreased $44 million, or 2%, compared to 2020. The decrease was primarily attributable to lower operating profit of approximately $120 million for classified contracts primarily due to a $225 million loss recognized in the second quarter of 2021 for performance issues experienced on a classified program that was partially offset by higher risk retirements on other classified programs recognized in the second half of 2021; and about $70 million for the F-35 program due to lower risk retirements and volume on development contracts and lower risk retirements on production contracts that were partially offset by higher risk retirements and volume on sustainment contracts. These decreases were partially offset by an increase of approximately $90 million for the C-130 program due to higher risk retirements on sustainment contracts; and about $50 million for the F-16 program due to higher risk retirements on sustainment contracts and higher production volume. Adjustments not related to volume, including net profit booking rate adjustments, were $60 million lower in 2021 compared to 2020.
Backlog
Backlog decreased in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to prolonged negotiations for F-35 production contracts resulting in lower orders in 2021.
Trends
We expect Aeronautics’ 2022 net sales to increase in the low-single digit range from 2021 driven by growth in F-16, F-22 and classified volume. Operating profit is expected to increase in the low-single digit range above 2021 levels. Operating profit margin for 2022 is expected to be in line with 2021 levels.
Missiles and Fire Control
Our MFC business segment provides air and missile defense systems; tactical missiles and air-to-ground precision strike weapon systems; logistics; fire control systems; mission operations support, readiness, engineering support and integration services; manned and unmanned ground vehicles; and energy management solutions. MFC’s major programs include PAC‑3, THAAD, Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Hellfire, Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM), Apache fire control system, Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod (SNIPER®), Infrared Search and Track (IRST21®) and Special Operations Forces Global Logistics Support Services (SOF GLSS). MFC’s operating results included the following (in millions):
202120202019
Net sales$11,693 $11,257 $10,131 
Operating profit1,648 1,545 1,441 
Operating margin14.1 %13.7 %14.2 %
Backlog at year-end$27,021 $29,183 $25,796 
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MFC’s net sales in 2021 increased $436 million, or 4%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher net sales of approximately $340 million for integrated air and missile defense programs due to higher volume and risk retirements (primarily PAC-3); and about $215 million for tactical and strike missile programs due to higher volume (primarily LRASM and JASSM). These increases were partially offset by a decrease of approximately $90 million for sensors and global sustainment programs due to lower volume (primarily SNIPER® and Apache) that was partially offset by close out activities related to the Warrior Capability Sustainment Program (Warrior) that was terminated by the customer in March 2021.
MFC’s operating profit in 2021 increased $103 million, or 7%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher operating profit of approximately $65 million for integrated air and missile defense programs due to higher risk retirements and volume (primarily PAC-3); about $45 million for tactical and strike missile programs due to higher volume (primarily LRASM and JASSM) and higher risk retirements (primarily GMLRS); and approximately $20 million for sensors and global sustainment programs due to the reversal of a portion of previously recorded losses on the Warrior program in the second and third quarters of 2021 that will not recur as a result of the program being terminated, which was partially offset by lower volume (primarily SNIPER and Apache). These increases were partially offset by charges of approximately $25 million due to performance issues on an energy program during the third quarter of 2021. Adjustments not related to volume, including net profit booking rate adjustments, were $85 million higher in 2021 compared to 2020.
Backlog
Backlog decreased in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to lower orders on PAC-3 and air dominance programs.
Trends
We expect MFC’s 2022 net sales to decrease in the low-single digit range from 2021 driven by volume on SOF GLSS and funding on a classified program. Operating profit is expected to decrease in the low-single digit range below 2021 levels. Operating profit margin for 2022 is expected to increase slightly from 2021 levels.
Rotary and Mission Systems
RMS designs, manufactures, services and supports various military and commercial helicopters, surface ships, sea and land-based missile defense systems, radar systems, sea and air-based mission and combat systems, command and control mission solutions, cyber solutions, and simulation and training solutions. RMS’ major programs include Aegis Combat System, Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), Multi-Mission Surface Combatant (MMSC), Black Hawk® and Seahawk® helicopters, CH-53K King Stallion heavy lift helicopter, Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH), VH-92A helicopter, and the C2BMC program. RMS’ operating results included the following (in millions):
202120202019
Net sales$16,789 $15,995 $15,128 
Operating profit1,798 1,615 1,421 
Operating margin10.7 %10.1 %9.4 %
Backlog at year-end$33,700 $36,249 $34,296 
RMS’ net sales in 2021 increased $794 million, or 5%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher net sales of $540 million for Sikorsky helicopter programs due to higher production volume (Black Hawk, CH-53K and CRH); and about $340 million for TLS programs primarily due to the delivery of an international pilot training system in the first quarter of 2021. These increases were partially offset by lower net sales of about $65 million for integrated warfare systems and sensors (IWSS) programs due to lower volume on the LCS and TPQ-53 programs that were partially offset by higher volume on the Canadian Surface Combatant (CSC) and Aegis programs.
RMS’ operating profit in 2021 increased $183 million, or 11%, compared to 2020. The increase was primarily attributable to higher operating profit of approximately $140 million for Sikorsky helicopter programs due to higher risk retirements (Black Hawk and CH-53K), higher production volume (Black Hawk and CRH), and lower charges on the CRH program in the first half of 2021; and about $10 million for TLS programs due to the delivery of an international pilot training system in the first quarter of 2021. Operating profit for IWSS programs was comparable as lower risk retirements on the LCS program and lower volume on the TPQ-53 program were offset by higher volume on the CSC program and lower charges on a ground-based radar program. Adjustments not related to volume, including net profit booking rate adjustments, were $80 million higher in 2021 compared 2020.
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Backlog
Backlog decreased in 2021 compared to 2020 primarily due to lower orders on Sikorsky programs.
Trends
We expect RMS’ 2022 net sales to decrease in the low-single digit range from 2021 driven by the delivery of a training system on an international pilot training program at RMS in 2021, as well as from lower volume on Black Hawk. Operating profit is expected to decline in the high-single digit range below 2021. Operating profit margin for 2022 is expected to be lower than 2021 levels.
Space
Our Space business segment is engaged in the research and development, design, engineering and production of satellites, space transportation systems, and strategic, advanced strike and defensive systems. Space provides network-enabled situational awareness and integrates complex space and ground global systems to help our customers gather, analyze, and securely distribute critical intelligence data. Space is also responsible for various classified systems and services in support of vital national security systems. Space’s major programs include the Trident II D5 Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) and Next Generation Overhead Persistent Infrared (Next Gen OPIR) system, Global Positioning System (GPS) III, hypersonics programs and Next Generation Interceptor (NGI). Operating profit for our Space business segment includes our share of earnings for our investment in ULA, which provides expendable launch services to the U.S. Government and commercial customers. Space’s operating results included the following (in millions):
202120202019
Net sales$11,814 $11,880 $10,860 
Operating profit1,134 1,149 1,191 
Operating margin9.6 %9.7